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  1. Content type: Research

    γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) is a bi-substrate enzyme conserved in all three domains of life. It catalyzes the cleavage and transfer of γ-glutamyl moiety of glutathione to either water (hydrolysis) or substr...

    Authors: Ved Vrat Verma, Rani Gupta and Manisha Goel

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:49

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  2. Content type: Review

    Oligonucleotide microarrays belong to the basic tools of molecular biology and allow for simultaneous assessment of the expression level of thousands of genes. Analysis of microarray data is however very compl...

    Authors: Roman Jaksik, Marta Iwanaszko, Joanna Rzeszowska-Wolny and Marek Kimmel

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:46

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  3. Content type: Research

    Resolution of the link between micro- and macroevolution calls for comparing both processes on the same deterministic landscape, such as genomic, metabolic or fitness networks. We apply this perspective to the...

    Authors: Alexander V. Badyaev, Erin S. Morrison, Virginia Belloni and Michael J. Sanderson

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:45

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  4. Content type: Discovery notes

    Spodoptera is an important polyphagous agricultural insect pest in the tropical world. The genomic details are limited to understand the pest biology at molecular level. In the present...

    Authors: Pavan Kumar Kakumani, Rohit Shukla, Vivek N. Todur, Pawan Malhotra, Sunil K. Mukherjee and Raj K. Bhatnagar

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:44

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  5. Content type: Review

    High-throughput technologies, such as next-generation sequencing, have turned molecular biology into a data-intensive discipline, requiring bioinformaticians to use high-performance computing resources and car...

    Authors: Ola Spjuth, Erik Bongcam-Rudloff, Guillermo Carrasco Hernández, Lukas Forer, Mario Giovacchini, Roman Valls Guimera, Aleksi Kallio, Eija Korpelainen, Maciej M Kańduła, Milko Krachunov, David P Kreil, Ognyan Kulev, Paweł P. Łabaj, Samuel Lampa, Luca Pireddu, Sebastian Schönherr…

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:43

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  6. Content type: Research

    Stoichiometric imbalances in macromolecular complexes can lead to altered function. Such imbalances stem from under- or over-expression of a subunit of a complex consequent to a deletion, duplication or regula...

    Authors: Reiner A. Veitia and James A. Birchler

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:42

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  7. Content type: Research

    Antibiotic resistance is a major biomedical problem upon which public health systems demand solutions to construe the dynamics and epidemiological risk of resistant bacteria in anthropogenically-altered enviro...

    Authors: Marcelino Campos, Carlos Llorens, José M. Sempere, Ricardo Futami, Irene Rodriguez, Purificación Carrasco, Rafael Capilla, Amparo Latorre, Teresa M. Coque, Andres Moya and Fernando Baquero

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:41

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  8. Content type: Research

    Annotation transfer for function and structure within the sequence homology concept essentially requires protein sequence similarity for the secondary structural blocks forming the fold of a protein. A simplis...

    Authors: Wing-Cheong Wong, Choon-Kong Yap, Birgit Eisenhaber and Frank Eisenhaber

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:39

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  9. Content type: Research

    In the post-genomic era where sequences are being determined at a rapid rate, we are highly reliant on computational methods for their tentative biochemical characterization. The Pfam database currently contai...

    Authors: Richa Mudgal, Sankaran Sandhya, Nagasuma Chandra and Narayanaswamy Srinivasan

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:38

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  10. Content type: Hypothesis

    Mounting evidence indicates that our planet might experience runaway effects associated to rising temperatures and ecosystem overexploitation, leading to catastrophic shifts on short time scales. Remediation s...

    Authors: Ricard V. Solé, Raúl Montañez and Salva Duran-Nebreda

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:37

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  11. Content type: Comment

    “Which came first, the Chicken or the Egg?” We suggest this question is not a paradox. The Modern Synthesis envisions speciation through genetic changes in germ cells via random mutations, an “Egg first” scena...

    Authors: Yitzhak Pilpel and Oded Rechavi

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:34

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  12. Content type: Review

    Origin of life research has been slow to advance not only because of its complex evolutionary nature (Franklin Harold: In Search of Cell History, 2014) but also because of the lack of agreement on fundamental ...

    Authors: Jan Spitzer, Gary J. Pielak and Bert Poolman

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:33

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  13. Content type: Research

    The ever-increasing expanse of online bioinformatics data is enabling new ways to, not only explore the visualization of these data, but also to apply novel mathematical methods to extract meaningful informati...

    Authors: Sebastian Benzekry, Jack A. Tuszynski, Edward A. Rietman and Giannoula Lakka Klement

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:32

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  14. Content type: Research

    Transmembrane proteins have important roles in cells, as they are involved in energy production, signal transduction, cell-cell interaction, cell-cell communication and more. In human cells, they are frequentl...

    Authors: László Dobson, István Reményi and Gábor E. Tusnády

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:31

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  15. Content type: Research

    Binding of cytochrome c, released from the damaged mitochondria, to the apoptotic protease activating factor 1 (Apaf-1) is a key event in the apoptotic signaling cascade. The binding triggers a major domain rearr...

    Authors: Daria N. Shalaeva, Daria V. Dibrova, Michael Y. Galperin and Armen Y. Mulkidjanian

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:29

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  16. Content type: Discovery notes

    In this study, we identified 19 intron losses, including 11 precise intron losses (PILs), six imprecise intron losses (IILs), one de-exonization, and one exon deletion in tomato and potato, and 17 IILs in Arabido...

    Authors: Ming-Yue Ma, Tao Zhu, Xue-Nan Li, Xin-Ran Lan, Heng-Yuan Liu, Yu-Fei Yang and Deng-Ke Niu

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:24

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  17. Content type: Research

    Lignin plays an important role in plant structural support and water transport, and is considered one of the hallmarks of land plants. The recent discovery of lignin or its precursors in various algae has rais...

    Authors: Leen Labeeuw, Patrick T Martone, Yan Boucher and Rebecca J Case

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:23

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  18. Content type: Discovery notes

    Deciphering the origin of uniquely eukaryotic features of sub-cellular systems, such as the translation apparatus, is critical in reconstructing eukaryogenesis. One such feature is the highly conserved, but po...

    Authors: A Maxwell Burroughs, Dapeng Zhang and L Aravind

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:21

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  19. Content type: Discovery notes

    Search of metagenomics sequence databases for homologs of virophage capsid proteins resulted in the discovery of a new family of virophages in the sheep rumen metagenome. The genomes of the rumen virophages (R...

    Authors: Natalya Yutin, Vladimir V Kapitonov and Eugene V Koonin

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:19

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  20. Content type: Research

    Co-regulation of gene expression has been known for many years, and studied widely both globally and for individual genes. Nevertheless, most analyses concerned transcriptional control, which in case of physic...

    Authors: Marlena Siwiak and Piotr Zielenkiewicz

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:18

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  21. Content type: Research

    RNA viruses rapidly accumulate genetic variation, which can give rise to synthetic lethal (SL) and deleterious (SD) mutations. Synthetic lethal mutations (non-lethal when alone but lethal when combined in one ...

    Authors: Michel Petitjean, Anne Badel, Reiner A Veitia and Anne Vanet

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:17

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  22. Content type: Research

    Members of the alphavirus supergroup include human pathogens such as chikungunya virus, hepatitis E virus and rubella virus. They encode a capping enzyme with methyltransferase-guanylyltransferase (MTase-GTase...

    Authors: Tero Ahola and David G Karlin

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:16

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  23. Content type: Research

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the predominant histological type of lung cancer, accounting for up to 85% of cases. Disease stage is commonly used to determine adjuvant treatment eligibility of NSCLC pa...

    Authors: Suyan Tian, Chi Wang and Ming-Wen An

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:15

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  24. Content type: Research

    CD4+ T cells are key regulators of the adaptive immune system and can be divided into T helper (Th) cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells. During an immune response Th cells mature from a naive state into one of se...

    Authors: Michael JT Stubbington, Bidesh Mahata, Valentine Svensson, Andrew Deonarine, Jesper K Nissen, Alexander G Betz and Sarah A Teichmann

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:14

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  25. Content type: Research

    Only a small fraction of bacteria and archaea that are identifiable by metagenomics can be grown on standard media. Recent efforts on deep metagenomics sequencing, single-cell genomics and the use of specializ...

    Authors: Isabelle Pagnier, Natalya Yutin, Olivier Croce, Kira S Makarova, Yuri I Wolf, Samia Benamar, Didier Raoult, Eugene V Koonin and Bernard La Scola

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:13

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  26. Content type: Discovery notes

    Plant viruses of the recently recognized family Amalgaviridae have monopartite double-stranded (ds) RNA genomes and encode two proteins: an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and a putative capsid protein (CP). ...

    Authors: Mart Krupovic, Valerian V Dolja and Eugene V Koonin

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:12

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  27. Content type: Erratum

    Following the publication of this article [1] it was noticed that, due to an error on the part of the publisher, the 2nd round of comments submitted by Reviewer 1, Dr. López-García, were unintentionally omitte...

    Authors: Scott L Hooper and Helaine J Burstein

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:11

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    The original article was published in Biology Direct 2014 9:24

  28. Content type: Research

    Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is a well-characterized cancer drug target. In the past, several QSAR models have been developed for predicting inhibition activity of molecules against EGFR. These mode...

    Authors: Harinder Singh, Sandeep Singh, Deepak Singla, Subhash M Agarwal and Gajendra P S Raghava

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:10

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  29. Content type: Research

    Telocytes (TCs) is an interstitial cell with extremely long and thin telopodes (Tps) with thin segments (podomers) and dilations (podoms) to interact with neighboring cells. TCs have been found in different or...

    Authors: Jian Wang, Ling Ye, Meiling Jin and Xiangdong Wang

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:9

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  30. Content type: Research

    Protein-RNA interactions perform diverse functions within the cell. Understanding the recognition mechanism of protein-RNA complexes has been a challenging task in molecular and computational biology. In earli...

    Authors: Raju Nagarajan, Sonia Pankaj Chothani, Chandrasekaran Ramakrishnan, Masakazu Sekijima and M Michael Gromiha

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:8

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  31. Content type: Reviewer acknowledgement

    The editors of Biology Direct would like to thank all the reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume 9 (2014).

    Authors: Eugene V Koonin, Laura F Landweber and David Lipman

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:7

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  32. Content type: Research

    Alterations in gut microbiota composition under antibiotic pressure have been widely studied, revealing a restricted diversity of gut flora, including colonization by organisms such as Enterococci, while their im...

    Authors: Aurélia Caputo, Grégory Dubourg, Olivier Croce, Sushim Gupta, Catherine Robert, Laurent Papazian, Jean-Marc Rolain and Didier Raoult

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:5

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  33. Content type: Research

    About 5–6% of the European bison (Bison bonasus) males are affected by posthitis (necrotic inflammation of the prepuce) and die in the wild forest. Despite many years of study, pathogenesis of this disease has no...

    Authors: Kamil Oleński, Małgorzata Tokarska, Dorota Maria Hering, Paulina Puckowska, Anna Ruść, Cino Pertoldi and Stanisław Kamiński

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:2

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  34. Content type: Research

    A key challenge in the field of HIV-1 protein evolution is the identification of coevolving amino acids at the molecular level. In the past decades, many sequence-based methods have been designed to detect pos...

    Authors: Guangdi Li, Kristof Theys, Jens Verheyen, Andrea-Clemencia Pineda-Peña, Ricardo Khouri, Supinya Piampongsant, Mónica Eusébio, Jan Ramon and Anne-Mieke Vandamme

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:1

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  35. Content type: Research

    Mutations in nucleotide sequences provide a foundation for genetic variability, and selection is the driving force of the evolution and molecular adaptation. Despite considerable progress in the understanding ...

    Authors: Alexander Goncearenco and Igor N Berezovsky

    Citation: Biology Direct 2014 9:29

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  36. Content type: Research

    Moonlighting proteins perform two or more cellular functions, which are selected based on various contexts including the cell type they are expressed, their oligomerization status, and the binding of different...

    Authors: Ishita Khan, Yuqian Chen, Tiange Dong, Xioawei Hong, Rikiya Takeuchi, Hirotada Mori and Daisuke Kihara

    Citation: Biology Direct 2014 9:30

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  37. Content type: Hypothesis

    Fundamental problems faced by the protocells and their modern descendants include how to go from one phenotypic state to another; escape from a basin of attraction in the space of phenotypes; reconcile conflic...

    Authors: Vic Norris, Rosetta N Reusch, Kazuei Igarashi and Robert Root-Bernstein

    Citation: Biology Direct 2014 10:28

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