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  1. Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domains are cytoplasmic domain that mediates receptor signalling. These domains are present in proteins like Toll-like receptors (TLR), its signaling adaptors and Interleukins...

    Authors: Shailya Verma and Ramanathan Sowdhamini
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:24
  2. Recent years have witnessed a growing academic interest in the effects of lncRNAs on tumors. LINC01419 is found to facilitate proliferation and metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) cells, but there is a gr...

    Authors: Zhao Chen, Weijian Tang, Yuhan Zhou and Zhengfu He
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:23
  3. Evolutionary rate is a key characteristic of gene families that is linked to the functional importance of the respective genes as well as specific biological functions of the proteins they encode. Accurate est...

    Authors: Svetlana Karamycheva, Yuri I. Wolf, Erez Persi, Eugene V. Koonin and Kira S. Makarova
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:22
  4. Amphiregulin (AREG) is a ligand of epidermal growth factor receptor and participates in the fibrosis of multiple organs. However, whether AREG can regulate hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is not well known. This r...

    Authors: Mingyue Ji, Yun Liu, Zhi Zuo, Cheng Xu, Li Lin and Yong Li
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:21
  5. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs), have been extensively investigated in diseases. The upregulated expression of miR-19b-3p has been validated in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Nonetheless, it regulator...

    Authors: Bihong Liao, Shaohong Dong, Zhenglei Xu, Fei Gao, Suihao Zhang and Ruijuan Liang
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:20
  6. Cancer metabolism is largely altered compared to normal cells. This study aims to explore critical metabolism pathways in colon adenocarcinoma (COAD), and reveal the possible mechanism of their role in cancer ...

    Authors: Shuang Wu, Yuzhu Gong, Jianfang Chen, Xiang Zhao, Huimin Qing, Yan Dong, Sisi Li, Jianjun Li and Zhe Wang
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:19
  7. “Can order spring from Chaos?” is the title of an extensive Report on Italian science published by NATURE on 12 May 1983 and written by Robert Walgate, the Chief European Correspondent. It is a twenty pages co...

    Authors: Maurizio Brunori
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:18
  8. RNF8 is an E3 ligase identified as a critical DNA damage-responsive protein. Recently, multiple reports have shown that RNF8 could be used as an important therapeutic target for cancer chemo/radiotherapy. Howe...

    Authors: Chuanyang Liu, Jingyu Kuang, Yuxuan Wang, Ting Duan, Lu Min, Chenyu Lu, Tianyi Zhang, Ruifen Chen, Ying Wu and Lingyun Zhu
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:17
  9. Colorectal carcinoma is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths, and indeed, rectal cancer accounting for approximately one third of newly diagnosed patients. Gold standard in the treatment of rectal...

    Authors: Andrea M. Guida, Bruno Sensi, Vincenzo Formica, Rolando M. D’Angelillo, Mario Roselli, Giovanna Del Vecchio Blanco, Piero Rossi, Gabriella T. Capolupo, Marco Caricato and Giuseppe S. Sica
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:16
  10. This is a review of the current state of molecular profiling in gastrointestinal (GI) cancers and what to expect from this evolving field in the future. Individualized medicine is moving from broad panel testi...

    Authors: Reetu Mukherji, Chao Yin, Rumaisa Hameed, Ali Z. Alqahtani, Monika Kulasekaran, Aiwu R. He, Benjamin A. Weinberg, John L. Marshall, Marion L. Hartley and Marcus S. Noel
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:15
  11. Rodents, such as mice, are vulnerable targets, and potential intermediate hosts, of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, including Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Omicron. N501Y in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of Spik...

    Authors: Yichao Zhu, Wenzhao Zhou, Zubiao Niu, Jiayi Sun, Zhengrong Zhang, Qinqin Li, You Zheng, Chenxi Wang, Lihua Gao and Qiang Sun
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:14
  12. The evolution of spliceosomal introns has been widely studied among various eukaryotic groups. Researchers nearly reached the consensuses on the pattern and the mechanisms of intron losses and gains across euk...

    Authors: Ming-Yue Ma, Ji Xia, Kun-Xian Shu and Deng-Ke Niu
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:13
  13. The RNA world hypothesis cannot address most of the questions of the origin of life without violating the continuity principle (small Darwinian steps without foresight and miracles). Moreover, the RNA world is...

    Authors: Besik Kankia
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:12
  14. Prime numbers have been attracting the interest of scientists since the first formulation of Euclid’s theorem in 300 B.C. Nowadays, physicists and mathematicians continue to formulate new theorems about prime ...

    Authors: Maria Loconsole and Lucia Regolin
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:11
  15. Historically, the molecular classification of colorectal cancer (CRC) was based on the global genomic status, which identified microsatellite instability in mismatch repair (MMR) deficient CRC, and chromosomal...

    Authors: Pasquale Sibilio, Francesca Belardinilli, Valerio Licursi, Paola Paci and Giuseppe Giannini
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:10
  16. Migrasomes, released by migrating cells, belong to the heterogeneous world of extracellular vesicles (EVs). However, they can be distinguished from all other members of EVs by their size, biorigin and protein ...

    Authors: Arianna Di Daniele, Ylenia Antonucci and Silvia Campello
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:8
  17. Bacteria and archaea produce an enormous diversity of modified peptides that are involved in various forms of inter-microbial conflicts or communication. A vast class of such peptides are Ribosomally synthesiz...

    Authors: Kira S. Makarova, Brittney Blackburne, Yuri I. Wolf, Anastasia Nikolskaya, Svetlana Karamycheva, Marlene Espinoza, Clifton E. Barry III, Carole A. Bewley and Eugene V. Koonin
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:7
  18. Adaptation of the lipid metabolism participates  in cancer pathogenesis, facilitating energy storage and influencing cell fate and control of molecular signalling. The tumour suppressor protein p53 is a molecu...

    Authors: Alessio Butera, Micaela Roy, Carlotta Zampieri, Eleonora Mammarella, Emanuele Panatta, Gerry Melino, Angelo D’Alessandro and Ivano Amelio
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:6
  19. In 2009, new EU legislation regulating advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs), consisting of gene therapy, tissue engineering and cell-based medicines, was introduced. Although less than 20 ATMPs were aut...

    Authors: Simon Hawlina, Helena H. Chowdhury, Tomaž Smrkolj and Robert Zorec
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:5
  20. Hepatoblastoma (HB) is identified to be the most common liver malignancy which occurs in children. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in numerous biological processes and diseases, including H...

    Authors: Wei Zhang, Feng Liang, Qingfeng Li, Hong Sun, Fei Li, Zhibo Jiao and Jie Lei
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:2
  21. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to be vital factors to affect the expression of genes and proteins. Also, it has been proved that the abnormal expression or mutation of lncRNAs stands as a si...

    Authors: Change Qi, Jianwei Liu, Pengnv Guo, Yali Xu, Jing Hu and Xiaomei Han
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:1
  22. A variety of hematopoietic abnormalities are commonly seen in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infected individuals despite antiviral therapy, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Nef plays an i...

    Authors: Wei Zou, Juanjuan Xing, Shijie Zou, Mei Jiang, Xinping Chen, Qi Chen, Daozheng Liu, Xiangcheng Zhang and Xin Fu
    Citation: Biology Direct 2021 16:27
  23. Microorganisms evolved specific acclimation strategies to thrive in environments of high or fluctuating salinities. Here, salt acclimation in the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 was analyzed by in...

    Authors: Stephan Klähn, Stefan Mikkat, Matthias Riediger, Jens Georg, Wolfgang R. Hess and Martin Hagemann
    Citation: Biology Direct 2021 16:26
  24. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors with high mortality worldwide. Accumulating researches have indicated that long non‑coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in varies human ...

    Authors: ZhenYu Feng, ZhenYu Ye, JiaMing Xie, Wei Chen, Wei Li and ChunGen Xing
    Citation: Biology Direct 2021 16:24
  25. During oncogenesis, cells become unrestrictedly proliferative thereby altering the tissue homeostasis and resulting in subsequent hyperplasia. This process is paralleled by resumption of cell cycle, aberrant D...

    Authors: Julian M. Rozenberg, Svetlana Zvereva, Aleksandra Dalina, Igor Blatov, Ilya Zubarev, Daniil Luppov, Alexander Bessmertnyi, Alexander Romanishin, Lamak Alsoulaiman, Vadim Kumeiko, Alexander Kagansky, Gerry Melino, Carlo Ganini and Nikolai A. Barlev
    Citation: Biology Direct 2021 16:23
  26. Rab32 is a small GTPase associated with multiple organelles but is particularly enriched at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, it controls targeting to mitochondria-ER contacts (MERCs), thus influencing com...

    Authors: Maria Sol Herrera-Cruz, Megan C. Yap, Nasser Tahbaz, Keelie Phillips, Laurel Thomas, Gary Thomas and Thomas Simmen
    Citation: Biology Direct 2021 16:22
  27. Recently, overwhelming evidence supports that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play crucial roles in the occurrence and progression of tumors. However, the role and mechanism of lncRNA TFAP2A-AS1 in human gastric...

    Authors: Xin Zhao, Linlin Chen, Jingxun Wu, Jun You, Qingqi Hong and Feng Ye
    Citation: Biology Direct 2021 16:21
  28. SARS-CoV-2 infection could cause severe acute respiratory syndrome, largely attributed to dysregulated immune activation and extensive lung tissue damage. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully under...

    Authors: He Ren, Chaobing Ma, Haoran Peng, Bo Zhang, Lulin Zhou, Yan Su, Xiaoyan Gao and Hongyan Huang
    Citation: Biology Direct 2021 16:20
  29. The knowledge of the history of a subject stimulates understanding. As we study how other people have made scientific breakthroughs, we develop the breadth of imagination that would inspire us to make new disc...

    Authors: Péter Poczai and Jorge A. Santiago-Blay
    Citation: Biology Direct 2021 16:19
  30. Skeletal muscle has an extraordinary regenerative capacity reflecting the rapid activation and effective differentiation of muscle stem cells (MuSCs). In the course of muscle regeneration, MuSCs are reprogramm...

    Authors: Jiankai Fang, Chao Feng, Wangwang Chen, Pengbo Hou, Zhanhong Liu, Muqiu Zuo, Yuyi Han, Chenchang Xu, Gerry Melino, Alexei Verkhratsky, Ying Wang, Changshun Shao and Yufang Shi
    Citation: Biology Direct 2021 16:18
  31. Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) are the primary source of osteoblasts in vivo. Emerging literatures have unveiled that circular RNAs (circRNAs) are actively drawn in the osteogenic di...

    Authors: Yuansheng Huang, Su Wan and Min Yang
    Citation: Biology Direct 2021 16:16
  32. The interaction between proteins is a fundamental event for cellular life that is generally mediated by specialized protein domains or modules. PDZ domains are the largest class of protein–protein interaction ...

    Authors: Caterina Nardella, Lorenzo Visconti, Francesca Malagrinò, Livia Pagano, Marianna Bufano, Marianna Nalli, Antonio Coluccia, Giuseppe La Regina, Romano Silvestri, Stefano Gianni and Angelo Toto
    Citation: Biology Direct 2021 16:15
  33. The mutation of TP53 gene affects half of all human cancers, resulting in impairment of the regulation of several cellular functions, including cell cycle progression and cell death in response to genotoxic st...

    Authors: Emanuele Panatta, Carlotta Zampieri, Gerry Melino and Ivano Amelio
    Citation: Biology Direct 2021 16:14
  34. Growing evidence has demonstrated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) can function as modulators in the development of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, the function of lncRNA small nucleolar RNA ...

    Authors: Jintao Qian, Xinhan Lei, Yue Sun, Lu Zheng, Jia Li, Shuai Zhang, Lei Zhang, Wanwan Li, Jianing Shi, Wenjun Jia and Tong Tang
    Citation: Biology Direct 2021 16:13
  35. Most inactivating mutations in TP53 gene generates neomorphic forms of p53 proteins that experimental evidence and clinical observations suggest to exert gain-of-function effects. While massive effort has been...

    Authors: Eleonora Mammarella, Carlotta Zampieri, Emanuele Panatta, Gerry Melino and Ivano Amelio
    Citation: Biology Direct 2021 16:11
  36. Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase-4 (ACSL4) is involved in fatty acid metabolism, and aberrant ACSL4 expression could be either tumorigenic or tumor-suppressive in different tumor types. However, the function and...

    Authors: Yixiang Zhang, Songyu Li, Fengzhou Li, Changsheng Lv and Qing-kai Yang
    Citation: Biology Direct 2021 16:10

    The Correction to this article has been published in Biology Direct 2023 18:68

  37. Cancer is a major health problem which presents a high heterogeneity. In this work we explore omics data from Breast, Kidney and Lung cancers at different levels as signalling pathways, functions and miRNAs, a...

    Authors: Sergio Romera-Giner, Zoraida Andreu Martínez, Francisco García-García and Marta R. Hidalgo
    Citation: Biology Direct 2021 16:9
  38. Human aromatase is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, involved in steroid hormones biosynthesis. In particular, it converts androgen into estrogens being therefore responsible for the correct sex ste...

    Authors: Giovanna Di Nardo, Almerinda Di Venere, Chao Zhang, Eleonora Nicolai, Silvia Castrignanò, Luisa Di Paola, Gianfranco Gilardi and Giampiero Mei
    Citation: Biology Direct 2021 16:8
  39. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major safety concern characterized by a complex and diverse pathogenesis. In order to identify DILI early in drug development, a better understanding of the injury and mod...

    Authors: Anika Liu, Moritz Walter, Peter Wright, Aleksandra Bartosik, Daniela Dolciami, Abdurrahman Elbasir, Hongbin Yang and Andreas Bender
    Citation: Biology Direct 2021 16:6
  40. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an adverse reaction caused by the intake of drugs of common use that produces liver damage. The impact of DILI is estimated to affect around 20 in 100,000 inhabitants worldw...

    Authors: Joaquim Aguirre-Plans, Janet Piñero, Terezinha Souza, Giulia Callegaro, Steven J. Kunnen, Ferran Sanz, Narcis Fernandez-Fuentes, Laura I. Furlong, Emre Guney and Baldo Oliva
    Citation: Biology Direct 2021 16:5
  41. The human proteins TMTC1, TMTC2, TMTC3 and TMTC4 have been experimentally shown to be components of a new O-mannosylation pathway. Their own mannosyl-transferase activity has been suspected but their actual en...

    Authors: Birgit Eisenhaber, Swati Sinha, Chaitanya K. Jadalanki, Vladimir A. Shitov, Qiao Wen Tan, Fernanda L. Sirota and Frank Eisenhaber
    Citation: Biology Direct 2021 16:4
  42. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is one of the primary problems in drug development. Early prediction of DILI can bring a significant reduction in the cost of clinical trials. In this work we examined whether ...

    Authors: Wojciech Lesiński, Krzysztof Mnich, Agnieszka Kitlas Golińska and Witold R. Rudnicki
    Citation: Biology Direct 2021 16:2

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