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  1. CpG dinucleotides are extensively underrepresented in mammalian genomes. It is widely accepted that genome-wide CpG depletion is predominantly caused by an elevated CpG > TpG mutation rate due to frequent cyto...

    Authors: Alexander Y. Panchin, Vsevolod J. Makeev and Yulia A. Medvedeva

    Citation: Biology Direct 2016 11:11

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. Genotyping by re-sequencing has become a standard approach to estimate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) diversity, haplotype structure and the biodiversity and has been defined as an efficient approach to ...

    Authors: Salvatore Camiolo, Gaurav Sablok and Andrea Porceddu

    Citation: Biology Direct 2016 11:8

    Content type: Application note

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  3. Translation of nucleotides into a numeric form has been approached in many ways and has allowed researchers to investigate the properties of protein-coding sequences and noncoding sequences. Typically, more pr...

    Authors: Tonya Woods, Thanawadee Preeprem, Kichun Lee, Woojin Chang and Brani Vidakovic

    Citation: Biology Direct 2016 11:6

    Content type: Research

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  4. The cilium (flagellum) is a complex cellular structure inherited from the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA). A large number of ciliary proteins have been characterized in a few model organisms, but their ...

    Authors: Marek Eliáš, Vladimír Klimeš, Romain Derelle, Romana Petrželková and Jan Tachezy

    Citation: Biology Direct 2016 11:5

    Content type: Research

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  5. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) enables the recovery of pathogen genomes from clinical samples without the need for culturing. Depletion of host/microbiota components (e.g., ribosomal RNA and poly-A RNA) and ...

    Authors: Dingchen Li, Zongwei Li, Zhe Zhou, Zhen Li, Xinyan Qu, Peisong Xu, Pingkun Zhou, Xiaochen Bo and Ming Ni

    Citation: Biology Direct 2016 11:3

    Content type: Discovery notes

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  6. The length of a protein sequence is largely determined by its function. In certain species, it may be also affected by additional factors, such as growth temperature or acidity. In 2002, it was shown that in t...

    Authors: Tatiana V. Tatarinova, Inna Lysnyansky, Yuri V. Nikolsky and Alexander Bolshoy

    Citation: Biology Direct 2016 11:2

    Content type: Research

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  7. It is widely believed that the treatment of glioblastomas (GBM) could benefit from oncolytic virus therapy. Clinical research has shown that Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) has strong oncolytic properties. In...

    Authors: Victor Lopez de Rioja, Neus Isern and Joaquim Fort

    Citation: Biology Direct 2016 11:1

    Content type: Research

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  8. In the past, many methods have been developed for peptide tertiary structure prediction but they are limited to peptides having natural amino acids. This study describes a method PEPstrMOD, which is an updated...

    Authors: Sandeep Singh, Harinder Singh, Abhishek Tuknait, Kumardeep Chaudhary, Balvinder Singh, S. Kumaran and Gajendra P. S. Raghava

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:73

    Content type: Research

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  9. The structure and organisation of ecological interactions within an ecosystem is modified by the evolution and coevolution of the individual species it contains. Understanding how historical conditions have sh...

    Authors: Daniel A. Power, Richard A. Watson, Eörs Szathmáry, Rob Mills, Simon T. Powers, C. Patrick Doncaster and BłaŻej Czapp

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:69

    Content type: Research

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Biology Direct 2016 11:29

  10. Many proteins of viruses infecting hyperthermophilic Crenarchaeota have no detectable homologs in current databases, hampering our understanding of viral evolution. We used sensitive database search methods an...

    Authors: Mart Krupovic, Virginija Cvirkaite-Krupovic, David Prangishvili and Eugene V. Koonin

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:65

    Content type: Discovery notes

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  11. Microbial rhodopsins and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs, which include animal rhodopsins) are two distinct (super) families of heptahelical (7TM) membrane proteins that share obvious structural similaritie...

    Authors: Daria N. Shalaeva, Michael Y. Galperin and Armen Y. Mulkidjanian

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:63

    Content type: Discovery notes

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  12. The current analysis of transposon elements (TE) in Drosophila melanogaster at Evolution Canyon, (EC), Israel, is based on data and analysis done by our collaborators (Drs. J. Gonzalez, J. Martinez and W. Makalow...

    Authors: Avigdor Beiles, Shmuel Raz, Yuval Ben-Abu and Eviatar Nevo

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:58

    Content type: Research

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  13. Transposable elements (TEs) play an important role in genome function and evolution. It has been shown that TEs are a considerable source of adaptive changes in the genome of Drosophila melanogaster. Specifically...

    Authors: Josefa González, Jose Martínez and Wojciech Makalowski

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:50

    Content type: Research

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  14. Genomic studies have greatly expanded our knowledge of structural non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). These RNAs fold into characteristic secondary structures and perform specific-structure dependent biological function...

    Authors: Avinash Achar and Pål Sætrom

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:61

    Content type: Review

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  15. While hundreds of genes have been implicated already in the etiology of schizophrenia, the exact cause is not known or the disease is considered multigenic in origin. Recent discoveries of new types of RNAs an...

    Authors: Vadim Gumerov and Hedi Hegyi

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:59

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  16. The interaction between the ribosome and the endoplasmic reticulum-located Sec61 protein translocon is mediated through an arginine residue of Sec61α, which is conserved in all prokaryotic and eukaryotic ortho...

    Authors: Abhishek Sinha, Atrayee Ray, Sandipan Ganguly, Shubhra Ghosh Dastidar and Srimonti Sarkar

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:56

    Content type: Discovery notes

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  17. Various methods are currently used to define species and are based on the phylogenetic marker 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence, DNA-DNA hybridization and DNA GC content. However, these are restricted genetic to...

    Authors: Aurélia Caputo, Vicky Merhej, Kalliopi Georgiades, Pierre-Edouard Fournier, Olivier Croce, Catherine Robert and Didier Raoult

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:55

    Content type: Research

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  18. γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) is a bi-substrate enzyme conserved in all three domains of life. It catalyzes the cleavage and transfer of γ-glutamyl moiety of glutathione to either water (hydrolysis) or substr...

    Authors: Ved Vrat Verma, Rani Gupta and Manisha Goel

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:49

    Content type: Research

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  19. Oligonucleotide microarrays belong to the basic tools of molecular biology and allow for simultaneous assessment of the expression level of thousands of genes. Analysis of microarray data is however very compl...

    Authors: Roman Jaksik, Marta Iwanaszko, Joanna Rzeszowska-Wolny and Marek Kimmel

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:46

    Content type: Review

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  20. Resolution of the link between micro- and macroevolution calls for comparing both processes on the same deterministic landscape, such as genomic, metabolic or fitness networks. We apply this perspective to the...

    Authors: Alexander V. Badyaev, Erin S. Morrison, Virginia Belloni and Michael J. Sanderson

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:45

    Content type: Research

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  21. Spodoptera is an important polyphagous agricultural insect pest in the tropical world. The genomic details are limited to understand the pest biology at molecular level. In the present...

    Authors: Pavan Kumar Kakumani, Rohit Shukla, Vivek N. Todur, Pawan Malhotra, Sunil K. Mukherjee and Raj K. Bhatnagar

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:44

    Content type: Discovery notes

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  22. High-throughput technologies, such as next-generation sequencing, have turned molecular biology into a data-intensive discipline, requiring bioinformaticians to use high-performance computing resources and car...

    Authors: Ola Spjuth, Erik Bongcam-Rudloff, Guillermo Carrasco Hernández, Lukas Forer, Mario Giovacchini, Roman Valls Guimera, Aleksi Kallio, Eija Korpelainen, Maciej M Kańduła, Milko Krachunov, David P Kreil, Ognyan Kulev, Paweł P. Łabaj, Samuel Lampa, Luca Pireddu, Sebastian Schönherr…

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:43

    Content type: Review

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  23. Stoichiometric imbalances in macromolecular complexes can lead to altered function. Such imbalances stem from under- or over-expression of a subunit of a complex consequent to a deletion, duplication or regula...

    Authors: Reiner A. Veitia and James A. Birchler

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:42

    Content type: Research

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  24. Antibiotic resistance is a major biomedical problem upon which public health systems demand solutions to construe the dynamics and epidemiological risk of resistant bacteria in anthropogenically-altered enviro...

    Authors: Marcelino Campos, Carlos Llorens, José M. Sempere, Ricardo Futami, Irene Rodriguez, Purificación Carrasco, Rafael Capilla, Amparo Latorre, Teresa M. Coque, Andres Moya and Fernando Baquero

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:41

    Content type: Research

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  25. Annotation transfer for function and structure within the sequence homology concept essentially requires protein sequence similarity for the secondary structural blocks forming the fold of a protein. A simplis...

    Authors: Wing-Cheong Wong, Choon-Kong Yap, Birgit Eisenhaber and Frank Eisenhaber

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:39

    Content type: Research

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  26. In the post-genomic era where sequences are being determined at a rapid rate, we are highly reliant on computational methods for their tentative biochemical characterization. The Pfam database currently contai...

    Authors: Richa Mudgal, Sankaran Sandhya, Nagasuma Chandra and Narayanaswamy Srinivasan

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:38

    Content type: Research

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  27. Mounting evidence indicates that our planet might experience runaway effects associated to rising temperatures and ecosystem overexploitation, leading to catastrophic shifts on short time scales. Remediation s...

    Authors: Ricard V. Solé, Raúl Montañez and Salva Duran-Nebreda

    Citation: Biology Direct 2015 10:37

    Content type: Hypothesis

    Published on:

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