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  1. Content type: Opinion

    Genetic parasites, including viruses and mobile genetic elements, are ubiquitous among cellular life forms, and moreover, are the most abundant biological entities on earth that harbor the bulk of the genetic ...

    Authors: Eugene V. Koonin, Yuri I. Wolf and Mikhail I. Katsnelson

    Citation: Biology Direct 2017 12:31

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  2. Content type: Application note

    The Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) of proteins systematize evolutionary related proteins into specific groups with similar functions. However, the available databases do not provide means to assess the ...

    Authors: Daria V. Dibrova, Kirill A. Konovalov, Vadim V. Perekhvatov, Konstantin V. Skulachev and Armen Y. Mulkidjanian

    Citation: Biology Direct 2017 12:29

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  3. Content type: Research

    Weaning stress affects the small intestine of piglets. MiR-146b is differentially expressed in suckling and weaned piglets. In this study, we evaluated the effects of miR-146b on cell viability, proliferation,...

    Authors: Xin Tao, Shujie Liu, Xiaoming Men and Ziwei Xu

    Citation: Biology Direct 2017 12:27

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  4. Content type: Application note

    In prokaryotic genomes, functionally coupled genes can be organized in conserved gene clusters enabling their coordinated regulation. Such clusters could contain one or several operons, which are groups of co-...

    Authors: Olesya I. Klimchuk, Kirill A. Konovalov, Vadim V. Perekhvatov, Konstantin V. Skulachev, Daria V. Dibrova and Armen Y. Mulkidjanian

    Citation: Biology Direct 2017 12:26

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  5. Content type: Research

    Programmed ribosomal frameshifting (PRF) is a gene expression mechanism which enables the translation of two N-terminally coincident, C-terminally distinct protein products from a single mRNA. Many viruses uti...

    Authors: Adam M. Dinan, John F. Atkins and Andrew E. Firth

    Citation: Biology Direct 2017 12:24

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  6. Content type: Opinion

    High-level debates in evolutionary biology often treat the Modern Synthesis as a framework of population genetics, or as an intellectual lineage with a changing distribution of beliefs. Unfortunately, these fl...

    Authors: Arlin Stoltzfus

    Citation: Biology Direct 2017 12:23

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  7. Content type: Research

    Bacterial species present in multispecies microbial communities often react to the same chemical signal but at vastly different concentrations. The existence of different response thresholds with respect to th...

    Authors: János Juhász, Dóra Bihary, Attila Jády, Sándor Pongor and Balázs Ligeti

    Citation: Biology Direct 2017 12:22

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  8. Content type: Research

    Oil palm is an important source of edible oil. The importance of the crop, as well as its long breeding cycle (10-12 years) has led to the sequencing of its genome in 2013 to pave the way for genomics-guided b...

    Authors: Kuang-Lim Chan, Tatiana V. Tatarinova, Rozana Rosli, Nadzirah Amiruddin, Norazah Azizi, Mohd Amin Ab Halim, Nik Shazana Nik Mohd Sanusi, Nagappan Jayanthi, Petr Ponomarenko, Martin Triska, Victor Solovyev, Mohd Firdaus-Raih, Ravigadevi Sambanthamurthi, Denis Murphy and Eng-Ti Leslie Low

    Citation: Biology Direct 2017 12:21

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  9. Content type: Research

    Much effort is underway to build and upgrade databases and tools related to occurrence, diversity, and characterization of CRISPR-Cas systems. As microbial communities and their genome complements are unearthe...

    Authors: Alice Toms and Rodolphe Barrangou

    Citation: Biology Direct 2017 12:20

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  10. Content type: Research

    Cancer cell invasion, dissemination, and metastasis have been linked to an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of individual tumour cells. During EMT, adhesion molecules like E-cadherin are downregulated a...

    Authors: David Reher, Barbara Klink, Andreas Deutsch and Anja Voss-Böhme

    Citation: Biology Direct 2017 12:18

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  11. Content type: Research

    During the generation and evolution of the eukaryotic cell, a proteobacterial endosymbiont was re-fashioned into the mitochondrion, an organelle that appears to have been present in the ancestor of all present...

    Authors: Güleycan Lutfullahoğlu-Bal, Abdurrahman Keskin, Ayşe Bengisu Seferoğlu and Cory D. Dunn

    Citation: Biology Direct 2017 12:16

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  12. Content type: Research

    A basic tenet of protein science is that all information about the spatial structure of proteins is present in their sequences. Nonetheless, many proteins fail to attain native structure upon experimental dena...

    Authors: Irina Sorokina and Arcady Mushegian

    Citation: Biology Direct 2017 12:14

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  13. Content type: Discovery notes

    We report a comprehensive computational dissection of the domain architecture of the SAMD9 family proteins that are involved in antivirus and antitumor response in humans. We show that the SAMD9 protein family...

    Authors: Sergei L. Mekhedov, Kira S. Makarova and Eugene V. Koonin

    Citation: Biology Direct 2017 12:13

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  14. Content type: Discovery notes

    The protein Gcn1 (General control non-derepressible 1) is found in virtually all eukaryotes, and is a key component of the general amino acid control signal transduction pathway. This pathway is best known for...

    Authors: Ramachandran Rakesh, Rangachari Krishnan, Evelyn Sattlegger and Narayanaswamy Srinivasan

    Citation: Biology Direct 2017 12:12

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  15. Content type: Research

    TRIF is a key protein in antiviral innate immunity, operating downstream of TLRs. TRIF activation leads to the production of interferon-β and pro-inflammatory cytokines. There is evidence from experiments to s...

    Authors: Jarjapu Mahita and Ramanathan Sowdhamini

    Citation: Biology Direct 2017 12:9

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  16. Content type: Research

    The transition between epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes (EMT) occurs in a variety of contexts. It is critical for mammalian development and it is also involved in tumor initiation and progression. Master ...

    Authors: Yoana Dimitrova, Andreas J. Gruber, Nitish Mittal, Souvik Ghosh, Beatrice Dimitriades, Daniel Mathow, William Aaron Grandy, Gerhard Christofori and Mihaela Zavolan

    Citation: Biology Direct 2017 12:8

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