Skip to content

Advertisement

Biology Direct

What do you think about BMC? Take part in

Open Access

Inter-platform concordance of gene expression data for the prediction of chemical mode of action

Biology Direct201611:67

https://doi.org/10.1186/s13062-016-0167-9

Received: 24 August 2016

Accepted: 7 October 2016

Published: 20 December 2016

Abstract

Background

It is interesting to study the consistency of outcomes arising from two genomic platforms: Microarray and RNAseq, which are established on fundamentally different technologies. This topic has been frequently discussed from the prospect of comparing differentially expressed genes (DEGs). In this study, we explore the inter-platform concordance between microarray and RNASeq in their ability to classify samples based on genomic information. We use a set of 7 standard multi-class classifiers and an adaptive ensemble classifier developed around them to predict Chemical Modes of Actions (MOA) of data profiled by microarray and RNASeq platforms from Rat Liver samples exposed to a variety of chemical compounds. We study the concordance between microarray and RNASeq data in various forms, based on classifier’s performance between two platforms.

Results

Using an ensemble classifier we observe improved prediction performance compared to a set of standard classifiers. We discover a clear concordance between each individual classifier’s performances in two genomic platforms. Additionally, we identify a set of important genes those specifies MOAs, by focusing on their impact on the classification and later we find that some of these top genes have direct associations with the presence of toxic compounds in the liver.

Conclusion

Overall there appears to be fair amount of concordance between the two platforms as far as classification is concerned. We observe widely different classification performances among individual classifiers, which reflect the unreliability of restricting to a single classifier in the case of high dimensional classification problems.

Reviewers

An extended abstract of this research paper was selected for the Camda Satellite Meeting to Ismb 2015 by the Camda Programme Committee. The full research paper then underwent two rounds of Open Peer Review under a responsible Camda Programme Committee member, Lan Hu, PhD (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Digital Biology Center-Cambridge). Open Peer Review was provided by Yiyi Liu and Partha Dey. The Reviewer Comments section shows the full reviews and author responses.

Keywords

ClassificationMicroarrayRNASeq

Background

For more than a decade microarray technology has provided enormous momentum to the modern genomic research. The ability of quantify thousands of genes’ expressions at the same time has led to remarkable achievements in wide range biological studies. Abundance of microarray assays has been published worldwide in various databases. However, microarray technology has some limitations, such as the accuracy of expression measurements limited by levels of hybridization and variability hybridization properties of probes [1]. RNAseq is a version of next generation sequencing technology which has recently become popular due to some of its advancement over the microarray technology. Evidently, RNASeq has a potential advantage in measuring absolute expression levels compared to the microarray technique [2, 3]. Since these two methods fundamentally differ in their underline technologies, it is interesting know if this disparity results an inconstancy in experimental outcomes. Classifiers are known to be one of the most widely use statistical tools in genomic oriented biomedical studies. For an example, identifying at risk individuals for a certain disease type such as cancers, based on their genetic profiles. In this work, we explore the concordance between microarray and RNASeq genomic platforms in the context of classifications based on a set of comparative classification experiments carried using these two platforms.

In recent years, a number of authors have discussed the agreement between scientific conclusions made on microarray and RNASeq platforms, based on comparative analyses. A common choice for these studies was the concordance of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). A previous study that described a large scale comparison of microarray and RNASeq platforms using the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) based analysis, reported a high correlation among expressions levels resulted from both platforms and suggested a reasonable concordance between DEGs by comparing tumors with normal tissues [4]. Another study compared these two bases using an analysis on data obtained from a colon cancer study and conclude that RNASeq had an advantage over microarray for detecting DEGs [5]. A recent article provided a comprehensive assessment between microarray and RNASeq methods, comparing DEGs using gene expressions resulted from a rat liver experiment [6]. Further they described the concordance in aspect of classification assessing the predictability of classes defined by the chemical mode of action (MOA), using a set of classifiers trained in two genomic platforms. Their study revealed weak classification accuracies for a set of classifiers when applied to these platforms.

Our work is based on the previously described rat liver data [6], where we primarily focus on developing a common classifier that works reasonably well in cross platforms providing better predictability. Next, we discuss the concordance between microarray and RNASeq platforms in various forms in prospect of classification. Furthermore, we identify a set of important genes for specifying classes given by MOAs by focusing their effects on the classifier accuracy. We use seven standard classifiers and an adaptive ensemble classifier built around them to achieve these goals. This study is part of the 2015 annual conference on Critical Assessment of Massive Data Analysis (CAMDA) challenges. The Rat liver experiment was conducted by the FDA SEQC consortium to assess the performance of modern gene transcript expression profiling methods, which is a comparative analysis designed for developing predictive models to predict the chemical mode of action (MOA).

The remainder of the article is organized as follows. In Section “Results”, we provide results and conclusions of the study. Section “Methods” explains all underline procedures applied. The main body of the paper ends with a discussion in Section “Discussion”.

Results

Classification in individual platforms

We first describe outcomes of the Analysis 1, which was performed using two basic strategies: adjusted and originally given test sets described in Section “Methods”. We provide a detailed summary of these results in Tables 1, 2, 3 and 4, where each table presents the classifier’s overall prediction accuracy, class specific sensitivity and the corresponding specificity. Graphical representations of the summarized result are also provided on Figs. 1 and 2.
Fig. 1

Plots between prediction accuracies of RNASeq vs Microarray for two different test sets using the common gene set, by eight different classification techniques, for classifiers trained and predicted on individual platform

Fig. 2

Plots between prediction accuracies of RNASeq vs Microarray for two different test sets using the complete gene set, by eight different classification techniques, for classifiers trained and predicted on individual platform

Table 1

Accuracies of predicting MOA’s in the adjusted test set, based on classifiers developed on gene expression sets profiled from microarray and RNASeq platforms

Platform

Classifier

Overall Acc. %

Sensitivity, Specificity

  
   

PPARA

CAR/PXR

Control

Microarray

Ensemble

75

89,67

44,94

100,67

 

SVM

58

56,59

33,73

100,44

 

RF

67

89,54

22,94

100,56

 

PLS+LDA

71

67,73

56,80

100,61

 

PLS+RF

58

44,68

44,68

100,45

 

PCA+LDA

17

0,27

0,27

67,0

 

PCA+RF

33

33,33

0,53

83,16

 

RPART

62

100,39

11,93

83,55

RNASeq

Ensemble

67

56,74

56,74

100,56

 

SVM

58

67,54

22,81

100,45

 

RF

58

67,54

22,81

100,45

 

PLS+LDA

67

56,74

56,74

100,56

 

PLS+RF

58

67,54

22,81

100,45

 

PCA+LDA

25

33,20

0,40

50,17

 

PCA+RF

20

22,19

11,25

33,16

 

RPART

46

22,60

33,54

100,28

Table 2

Accuracies of predicting MOA’s in the originally given test set, based on classifiers developed on common gene expression sets profiled from microarray and RNASeq platforms

Platform

Classifier

Overall Acc. %

Sensitivity, Specificity

   
   

PPARA

CAR/PXR

Control

OTHER

Microarray

Ensemble

50

44,52

44,52

100,42

39,58

 

SVM

55

0,70

0,70

83,50

100,21

 

RF

57

0,73

0,73

100,50

100,25

 

PLS+LDA

40

67,33

56,36

67,36

6,67

 

PLS+RF

55

11,67

11,67

100,48

83,34

 

PCA+LDA

12

0,15

0,15

83,0

0,21

 

PCA+RF

40

0,51

0,51

94,31

0,70

 

RPART

45

100,30

0,57

83,39

28,58

RNASeq

Ensemble

50

33,55

33,55

100,42

50,50

 

SVM

60

0,76

11,73

100,53

100,30

 

RF

55

0,70

0,70

100,48

94,26

 

PLS+LDA

38

56,33

56,33

100,28

0,66

 

PLS+RF

55

11,67

22,64

100,48

78,38

 

PCA+LDA

14

0,18

0,18

100,0

0,24

 

PCA+RF

43

0,55

0,55

83,36

72,21

 

RPART

43

33,46

33,46

33,45

56,33

Table 3

Accuracies of predicting MOA’s in the adjusted test set, based on classifiers developed on complete gene expression sets profiled from microarray and RNASeq platforms

Platform

Classifier

Overall Acc. %

Sensitivity, Specificity

   

PPARA

CAR/PXR

Control

Microarray

Ensemble

62

56,66

44,73

100,49

 

SVM

50

33,60

44,54

83,39

 

RF

67

89,54

22,94

100,56

 

PLS+LDA

67

67,67

44,81

100,56

 

PLS+RF

54

44,60

33,67

100,39

 

PCA+LDA

12

33,0

0,20

0,17

 

PCA+RF

8

22,0

0,13

0,11

 

RPART

62

100,39

11,93

83,55

RNASeq

Ensemble

62

56,66

44,73

100,49

 

SVM

54

44,60

33,67

100,39

 

RF

62

78,52

22,86

100,49

 

PLS+LDA

58

44,66

44,66

100,44

 

PLS+RF

50

44,54

22,67

100,33

 

PCA+LDA

33

33,33

0,53

83,16

 

PCA+RF

25

22,27

0,40

67,11

 

RPART

42

44,41

22,54

67,34

Table 4

Accuracies of predicting MOA’s in the originally given test set, based on classifiers developed on complete gene expression sets profiled from microarray and RNASeq platforms

Platform

Classifier

Overall Acc. %

Sensitivity, Specificity

 
   

PPARA

CAR/PXR

Control

OTHER

Microarray

Ensemble

55

33,61

44,58

100,48

56,54

 

SVM

55

0,70

0,70

83,50

100,21

 

RF

55

0,70

0,70

83,50

100,21

 

PLS+LDA

38

67,30

44,36

100,28

0,66

 

PLS+RF

60

11,73

0,76

100,53

100,30

 

PCA+LDA

17

0,22

11,19

83,6

6,25

 

PCA+RF

38

0,48

0,48

0,44

89,0

 

RPART

48

100,34

0,61

83,42

33,59

RNASeq

Ensemble

55

44,58

33,61

100,48

56,54

 

SVM

55

0,70

0,70

83,50

100,21

 

RF

52

0,66

0,66

83,47

94,20

 

PLS+LDA

33

44,30

44,30

100,22

0,58

 

PLS+RF

60

0,76

22,70

100,53

94,34

 

PCA+LDA

10

0,13

22,7

33,6

0,18

 

PCA+RF

43

0,55

0,55

17,47

94,5

 

RPART

24

44,19

22,25

67,17

0,42

We first discuss the classification resulted from using a set of genes that are represented in both platforms. For the adjusted test set, the left panel of the Fig. 1 shows that the performance of each classifier is similar in both platforms, since all the data points are fairly close to the diagonal line (Pearson’s r=0.92). The accuracy of individual classifier varies from 17 to 75%, and as to be expected, the performance of the ensemble classifier is the best in both platforms. The overall accuracy of the optimal classification method is slightly better in microarray compared to RNA-seq (75% vs 67%). In particular, we observe a lower prediction accuracy for the class “PPARA" in RNASeq (56%), compared to the microarray (89%) platform. Overall, the class given by “CAR/PXR" which has a maximum sensitivity of only 56%, seems to be the MOA that hardest to predict. Some individual classifiers show widely different prediction sensitivity for the same class in two platforms. For example the sensitivity for “PPARA" by RPART is 100% in microarray, whereas it reaches as low as 22% in RNAseq.

When the original (i.e., unadjusted) test set is used, we again observe matching performance of classifiers in both platforms (Table 2) similar to the case with the adjusted test set; in fact, the agreement is even higher (Pearson’s r=0.94) as shown in the right panel of the Fig. 1. The overall accuracy ranges from 60 to 12% indicating a drop in the classification performance compare to the previous scenario. For example, 75% vs 50% in microarray and 67% vs 50% in RNASeq for the ensemble classifier. Comparing Tables 1 and 2, we also notice a decline in sensitivities of predicting three known classes namely “PPARA", “CAR/PXR", and “Control". Since this analysis was carried using an alternative approach as described in the Section “Methods”, such decline could be possibly resulted from classifying several samples belonging to above known classes as “OTHER" by depressing the “true" class probability below 0.5 if these class attributes are somewhat close to one another. In this case, few other individual classifiers such as SVM, RF outperform the ensemble classifier in terms of the overall accuracy. But nevertheless, the ensemble classifier still acts as the best overall amongst all with regard to all performance measures.

Even with the complete set of genes, we observe similar conformity of classifiers’ performance between the two platforms (Fig. 2) as described above. Specifically for the ensemble classifier the overall accuracy is identical in the two platforms, in each case. According to Tables 3 and 4, the overall accuracy ranges between 8 to 67% and 10 to 55%, for adjusted test set and the original test set, respectively. Even though we used bigger gene sets, there is no additional improvement for predicting MOAs; indeed the performance gets worse, which is quite evident for the adjusted test set. However, some classifiers surprisingly hold equal performances for both sets of genes. As for example, the RPART shows identical performances in the microarray platform under bigger and smaller sets of genes.

Classification in cross platforms

Results of the 2nd analysis, namely, classification in cross platform are summarized in Table 5 and Fig. 3. We performed this study using only the common set of genes since both platforms are involved together throughout the analysis. Compared to all previous classifications we discussed in Analysis 1, this result shows even greater agreement between the prediction accuracies of the classifiers trained on a bigger training set in one platform and used to predict using the bigger test data on the other platform (Pearson’s r=0.99). Remarkably, the ensemble classifier was able to provide 100% accurate predictions for both cases, regardless of the additional complexity caused by 8 varieties of classes. In this analysis, the component classifier PLS+LDA also performed similarly to the ensemble classifier in both cases yielding 100% accurate class predictions. Apart from above two classifiers, SVM, RF, and PLS+RF also hold substantially high prediction accuracies.
Fig. 3

Plots between prediction accuracies of RNASeq vs Microarray test sets, by eight different classification techniques, for classifiers trained and predicted on cross platforms

Table 5

Accuracies of predicting MOA’s in the whole datasets (inducing testing and training sets) of RNAseq and microarray platforms, using the classifiers trained on corresponding opposite platform

Procedure

Classifier

Overall Acc. %

Sensitivity, Specificity

 
   

PPARA

CAR/PXR

AhR

Cytotoxic

DNADamage

ER

HMGCOA

Control

Trained on microarray and predicted on RNASeq

Ensemble

100

100,100

100,100

100,100

100,100

100,100

100,100

100,100

100,100

 

svm

86

100,83

100,83

33,91

44,99

67,88

89,86

100,85

100,82

 

RF

92

100,90

100,90

56,95

89,93

67,94

100,91

100,91

100,90

 

PLS+LDA

100

100,100

100,100

100,100

100,100

100,100

100,100

100,100

100,100

 

PLS+RF

98

100,98

100,98

78,100

100,97

100,98

100,98

100,98

100,97

 

PCA+LDA

11

0,13

6,12

44,8

0,14

0,12

0,12

0,12

29,6

 

PCA+RF

12

0,15

6,13

0,13

0,16

0,13

0,13

0,13

50,1

 

RPART

68

83,65

61,69

33,71

67,68

67,68

67,68

100,65

62,70

Trained on RNASeq and predicted on microarray

Ensemble

100

100,100

100,100

100,100

100,100

100,100

100,100

100,100

100,100

 

svm

87

100,84

94,86

22,93

75,88

80,88

89,87

100,86

100,83

 

RF

94

100,93

100,93

78,96

88,95

87,95

78,96

100,93

100,92

 

PLS+LDA

100

100,100

100,100

100,100

100,100

100,100

100,100

100,100

100,100

 

PLS+RF

93

94,93

100,92

78,94

100,92

87,94

78,94

100,92

97,92

 

PCA+LDA

13

0,16

0,16

0,14

0,14

0,14

0,14

0,14

47,3

 

PCA+RF

9

0,11

0,11

22,8

0,10

0,10

0,10

0,10

30,3

 

RPART

76

100,71

94,72

0,83

100,74

68,77

100,74

0,83

87,73

Exploring outcomes resulted from Analysis 1 and 2 (Tables 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5), we clearly notice, between the two types of dimension reduction methods, PLS performs far better than PCA throughout this study. The performances of classifiers integrated with PCA are clearly the weakest among all individual classifiers in each scenario.

Importance of genes

We summarize results of the 3rd analysis in Tables 6, 7, 8 and 9, where each table lists the top 20 important gene name and the overall accuracy obtained by the cross validation. As we describe in the methods section this analysis was performed using two experiments: (i) using the adjusted test set and (ii) the full dataset. Furthermore, we consider using the common and complete sets of genes as additional sub-analyses within above primary experiments.
Table 6

Genes ranked by the importance based on accuracy reduction, for Microarray and RNA-Seq, using the adjusted test set with the common set of genes

Rank

Microarray

RNA-Seq

 

Gene name

Resulted accuracy

Gene name

Resulted accuracy

1

Cyp1a1

0.561

Fam111a

0.540

2

RT1-Bb

0.575

Evc

0.610

3

Fam111a

0.585

Cyp1a1

0.621

4

Ugt2b

0.599

Cyp1a2

0.625

5

Aldh1a7

0.628

Akr1b8

0.625

6

Akr1b8

0.632

Hbb

0.625

7

Gpnmb

0.647

Ugt2b

0.625

8

Obp3

0.647

Dhrs7

0.626

9

Hbb

0.649

Mme

0.628

10

Vnn1

0.658

Nr1d1

0.628

11

Tsku

0.660

Cish

0.631

12

Aldh1a1

0.668

Abcc3

0.631

13

RGD1309362

0.668

Adora1

0.632

14

Socs2

0.669

Fos

0.636

15

LOC685020

0.671

Abcd2

0.640

16

Aldh1b1

0.672

Irs3

0.642

17

RGD1564865

0.674

Asrgl1

0.644

18

Cyp1a2

0.675

Pilra

0.646

19

Psat1

0.676

Ddhd1

0.646

20

Gadd45g

0.678

Ugt2b17

0.647

Table 7

Analysis 3: Genes ranked by the importance, for microarray and RNASeq, using the adjusted test set with complete sets of genes

Rank

Microarray

RNA-Seq

 

Gene name

Resulted accuracy

Gene name

Resulted accuracy

1

Fam111a

0.572

Abcb1b

0.551

2

Abcc3

0.606

GTP_EFTU_D3.1

0.563

3

Adam8

0.624

Hba-a2

0.564

4

LOC100911107 0.628

 

Hbb

0.569

5

Atf3

0.632

Cyp1a1

0.569

6

Krt10

0.635

LOC360504

0.572

7

Aldh1a7

0.638

Casp12

0.572

8

MGC108823

0.638

Ugt2b

0.572

9

Ckap2

0.638

Apof

0.575

10

Cyp1a1

0.638

MGC72973

0.578

11

Asrgl1

0.639

blarkly

0.578

12

Hamp

0.640

Dhrs7

0.578

13

Hbb

0.640

Laminin_G_2.1

0.579

14

Angptl4

0.640

LOC313220

0.579

15

Oas1a

0.640

Car3

0.579

16

Psat1

0.640

Dbp

0.579

17

Igfbp2

0.642

Mcm5

0.581

18

Gsta3

0.643

TCTP.0

0.581

19

Obp3

0.649

Egln3

0.581

20

Pik3r1

0.649

Fam111a

0.581

Table 8

Genes ranked by the importance (based on the measure given by R), for Microarray and RNA-Seq, using the whole data including 8 verities of MOAs with the common gene set

Rank

Microarray

RNASeq

 
 

Gene name

Resulted accuracy

R

Gene name

Resulted accuracy

R

1

Cyp1a1

0.9538

0.0064

Cyp1a1

0.9658

0.0063

2

RT1-Bb

0.9707

0.0018

Abcc3

0.9786

0.0019

3

Gstp1

0.9740

0.0017

Cyp7a1

0.9689

0.0016

4

Usp2

0.9600

0.0015

Cyp1a2

0.9751

0.0016

5

Nr1d1

0.9693

0.0012

Fabp2

0.9705

0.0015

6

Obp3

0.9694

0.0011

Sgcb

0.9677

0.0014

7

Fam111a

0.9733

0.0011

Atf3

0.9672

0.0014

8

Prss23

0.963

0.0009

Gdf15

0.9692

0.0013

9

Igtp

0.9668

0.0009

Apoa4

0.9699

0.0011

10

Taf8

0.9725

0.0008

Slc13a3

0.9751

0.0011

11

Dmbt1

0.9768

0.0008

Ugt2b17

0.9751

0.0011

12

Ccng1

0.9611

0.0008

Acy3

0.9670

0.0011

13

Cav1

0.9654

0.0008

Porcn

0.9732

0.0011

14

Rnf152

0.9697

0.0008

Slc7a5

0.9652

0.0011

15

Cxcl10

0.9711

0.0008

Hdc

0.9676

0.0010

16

Rhbdf2

0.9764

0.0008

Ddhd1

0.9686

0.0010

17

Casp4

0.9683

0.0008

Rprm

0.9743

0.0010

18

Cyp2c12

0.9688

0.0008

Btg3

0.9700

0.0010

19

Aldh1a7

0.9697

0.0008

Maff

0.9757

0.0010

20

Abcc3

0.9721

0.0008

Fabp4

0.9734

0.0009

Table 9

Genes ranked by the importance (based on the measure given by R), for Microarray and RNA-Seq, using the whole data including 8 verities of MOAs with the complete gene set

Rank

Microarray

RNASeq

 

Gene name

Resulted accuracy

R

Gene name

Resulted accuracy

R

1

LOC100912602

0.9616

0.0096

LOC690286

0.9407

0.0098

2

Il1rap

0.9821

0.008

Plcd3

0.9913

0.0087

3

Htatip2

0.9736

0.0074

Sgcb

0.9732

0.0078

4

Cd276

0.9557

0.0073

Retsat

0.9733

0.0077

5

Ankrd33b

0.9637

0.0065

Zfp39

0.9924

0.0076

6

Id1

0.9836

0.0064

Abcg5

0.9745

0.0074

7

Hgd

0.9649

0.0062

perja

0.9927

0.0073

8

RGD1305928

0.9562

0.0059

Sgk2

0.9530

0.0073

9

Acot2

0.9848

0.0052

Naaladl1

0.9657

0.0072

10

Dusp1

0.9860

0.0040

Mrps18b

0.9830

0.0071

11

Sat2

0.9870

0.0040

flergar

0.9842

0.0067

12

Adcy4

0.9663

0.0038

Nol3

0.9933

0.0067

13

Rexo4

0.9863

0.0037

stukaw

0.9755

0.0065

14

Dtnb

0.9863

0.0037

Igf2bp2

0.9837

0.0064

15

Hbb

0.9873

0.0037

slakoy

0.9937

0.0063

16

Fam111a

0.9676

0.0034

Serpinb1a

0.9852

0.0058

17

LOC690020

0.9770

0.0031

Ccnd1

0.9856

0.0054

18

Ddias

0.9870

0.0031

Id1

0.9947

0.0053

19

Resp18

0.9779

0.0031

Nrxn2

0.9947

0.0053

20

Mlc1

0.9879

0.0030

LOC494499

0.9658

0.0053

Referring to the Table 6, we observe that five of ten most important genes for classification (Cyp1a1, Fam111a, Ugt2b, Akr1b8, and Hbb) are in common between the two platforms, when the adjusted test set is used with the common set of gene. From literature search we found that Cyp1a1 encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 super-family of enzymes which catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism [7]. Likewise, Ugt2b belongs to a large family of proteins capable of detoxifying a wide variety of both endogenous and exogenous substrates such as biogenic amines, steroids, bile acids, phenolic compounds, and various other pharmacologically relevant compounds including numerous carcinogens, toxic environmental pollutants, and prescription drugs [8]. The function of Akr1b8 implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications [9]. Mutations in Hbb have been implicated in a number of blood disorders [10], while mutations of Fam111a are strongly associated with type 2 Kenny-Caffey syndrome [11].

Table 7 presents the top 20 genes detected from complete gene sets for two platforms. We notice that 6 genes (Fam111a, Cyp1a1, Hbb, Aldh1a7, Psat1, and Obp3) for the microarray and 5 genes (Fam111a, Hbb, Cyp1a1, Ugt2b, and Dhrs7) for the RNASeq are in common with the top 20 of the previous analysis (Table 6).

Although the main goal of detecting impotent genes with the full data (Analysis 3.2) was to identify sets of genes making considerable impact on classifying all eight MOAs, interestingly, the outcome of this study (Tables 8 and 9) reveal high average (unpermuted) prediction accuracies (close to 100%) for both platforms using the 5 fold cross-validation technique. Tables 8 and 9 show lists of top genes ranked by the relative reduction of accuracy (R), for microarray and RNASeq, respectively. Clearly, there is no single gene that makes a substantial contribution to the accuracy. However, we identified two genes (Cyp1a1, Abcc3) that are commonly present in both lists when the complete set of genes was used. Based on the same analysis but performed using complete sets of genes we observe only one gene named Id1 is common important gene for the two platforms. We observed that Abcc3 is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, which is involved in multi-drug resistance [12]. The Id1 gene plays a crucial role in activating hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) responding to liver damages [13].

Methods

Ensemble classifier

Support Vector Machines (SVM), Random Forests (RF), Neural Network (NN), Linear and Quadric Discriminant Analysis (LDA, QDA) are examples of standard techniques that are widely applied in classification problems. Performances of these classifiers are highly variable across problems. Thus, none of standard classifier can be considered to be the best for all classification settings. In complex situations, such as classifications in high dimensional genomic data, a more meaningful approach would be use an ensemble classifier which combines many standard classification algorithms together to develop an improved classifier. The ensemble classifier we use builds a number of individual models on randomly selected subsets of data which can then be combined or averaged in some meaningful fashion. Majority voting is a popular choice is for a typical solution. Such a classifier by allowing data based utilization of a multitude of classification algorithms for a upholds consistent performance in various types of data and classification problems. In this work, we use the adaptive optimal ensemble classer developed, via bagging and rank aggregation [14]. In this approach, several user specified classifiers are trained on bootstrap samples drawn from the original data using simple random sampling. Since the sampling is done with replacement, some samples will be repeated multiple times while others will be out of the bootstrap sample (known as out-of-bag (OOB) samples). Focusing on the prediction performances on the OOB samples, a best classifier is select based on various performance measures. For example, in a binary classification problem, sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the curve of the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve are some legitimate performance measures. This method is equipped with rank aggregation [15, 16], which provides a great flexibility in selecting the optimal classifier with respect to various multiple performance measures. Predicted classes for a given test set is selected as the highest voted class, as predicted by the above set of “best" classifiers over all bootstrap resamples. Datta et al. [14], demonstrated the performance of the ensemble classifier using various numerical studies and real applications of gene expressions data. In the context of regression similar concepts have been developed [17].

The algorithm described below demonstrates the step by step procedure of developing an ensemble classifier [14]. Suppose the dataset of n samples with p dimensional covariates in the form of { X n×p ,Y n×1}, where X corresponds to independent variables and Y represents the dependent categorical variable that specifies a class label. Assume the ensemble classier is intend to built with M classification algorithms based on K different performance methods such as overall accuracy, class sensitivities etc. to optimize the predictive performance. Thus, we proceed as follows:
  1. 1.

    Resampling: Draw a bootstrap sample of size n \(\left \{\boldsymbol {X}^{*}_{n \times p}, \boldsymbol {Y}^{*}_{n \times 1}\right \}\) from the original data {X n×p ,Y n×1} by resampling rows with simple random sampling. Sampling is repeated until samples from all classes are present in the bootstrap sample and then determine the corresponding OOB sample that contains all samples which are left out from the bootstrap sample.

     
  2. 2.

    Classifier Training: Train M classification algorithms, C 1,…,C M , on the bootstrap sample.

     
  3. 3.

    Performance Assessment: Obtain M predicted class labels for each OOB case. Since true classes of the OOB samples are known, calculate K different performance measures for each of M algorithms using their corresponding predictions.

     
  4. 4.

    Rank Aggregation: Rank M algorithms according to K performance measures. So, we have K ordered lists (L 1,…,L K ) of size M. These lists are then rank-aggregated using the weighted rank aggregation to determines the best algorithm C (1) overall.

    Repeat the above procedure (steps 1–4) for B times, where B considered to be a large integer which is usually selected according to the computational capacity.

     
  5. 5.

    Prediction for a New Sample: Predict the class variable Y for a new sample X using the B prediction models \(C^{1}_{(1)},\ldots,C^{B}_{(1)}\) and determined the highest voted class to obtain the final class prediction \(\hat {Y}\).

     

Rank aggregation

Suppose the performances of M classifiers are evaluated on the basis of K performance measures. Assume we have ordered lists L 1,…,L K , where ith ordered list L i , i=1,…K, provides ranks of M algorithms on their performances evaluated on the ith measure. The rank aggregation [15, 16] procedure provides a single ranked list of M classifiers that minimizes the weighted sum of distances from all individual lists, given by the following objective function,
$$ \Phi(L)=\sum_{i}w_{i}d(L,L_{i})\text{,} $$
(1)

where L is any possible ordered list of the M classifiers, w i ’s are weights which represent the user specific importance of each of the K performance measures. The classifier in the first position of this aggregated list that is the optimal classifier overall with respect to all the validation measures. Of course, the default choice would be to use w i =1 for all i which means all the validation measures are taken as equally important in determining the optimal algorithm. Throughout out analyses, we have used w i =1. d is a distance function such as Spearman’s footrule or Kendall’s tau, which measures the closeness between two ordered lists. In this work, we use Spearman’s footrule distance function as the distance measure.

Often for high dimensional data, standard classifiers are combined with dimension reduction, variable selection, or penalization techniques such as Partial Least Squares (PLS), Principle Component Analysis (PCA), Random Forest (RF) based importance measures, L 1 regularization, etc., for greater applicability and improved prediction accuracy [18, 19]. For a genomic data characterized by high dimension, use of an ensemble classifier developed on such set of improved component classifiers represents an ideal choice.

Rat liver data

Our data for this study was released by 2015 CAMDA competition. Microarray and RNASeq platforms contain gene expression measurements of nearly 31,000 and 46,000 genes, respectively. The dataset consists of gene expression responses profiled by Affymetrix microarrays and Illumina RNASeq sequencer in rat liver tissues from 105 male Sprague-Dawley Rats, which are exposed to 27 different chemicals represented by 9 different MOAs. In the original experiment, a training set is formed with 45 rats, which are treated with 15 chemicals corresponding to MOAs of “PPARA", “CAR/PXR", “AhR", “Cytotoxic", “DNA damage", and 18 controls. Test set contains data on 36 rats which are treated with 12 chemicals corresponding to “PPARA", “CAR/PXR", “ER", “HMGCOA" and 6 controls. We found that two MOAs, “ER" and “HMGCOA" are present only in the test set. We further noticed that approximately 22,253 average expressions per sample in RNA-seq data were recorded as “NA", which indicates that insufficient number of reads mapped onto the gene to provide a reliable gene expression estimate. We retained gene sets of sizes 13,686 and 16,133 for microarray and RNASeq platforms, after (i) removing unnamed genes, (ii) removing genes with unobserved expressions, and (iii) averaging multiple expressions reported from the genes with unique names.

In this work, we used normalized expression levels that came from microarray data using Robust Multi-Array Average (RMA) expression measurements [20], whereas data obtained for RNASeq was already normalized via the Magic normalization [6, 21]. We decided that it would be reasonable to perform separate analysis with a common set of genes (8336) represented in both platforms and also with complete sets of genes, for a comparative study.

Concordance experiments

We conducted three types of investigations for studying the performance of the proposed classifiers.
  1. 1.

    Train classifiers and make predictions on individual platforms.

     
  2. 2.

    Train classifiers in one platform to make predictions on the other platform.

     
  3. 3.

    Identify important variables (genes) for accurate classification.

     

In the 1st analysis, we explore the predictability of MOAs using various classifiers developed in the given training data. To our knowledge, there is no established criteria to define prediction for an unknown class that was not represented in the training data. Thus, we select an adjusted test set after eliminating all test samples belonging to two classes of “ER" and “HMGCOA", where the new test was used in parts of 1st and 3rd analysis. However we also considered the originally given test set as a part of 1st analysis by adopting following alternative classification approach. Accordingly, first we designated both “ER" and “HMGCOA" samples belonging to the original test set as “OTHER". For each classifier, then we determined the maximum class probability for a given test sample and if the above probability was less than 0.5 we selected the predicted class as “OTHER", else kept the originally predicted class. For this purpose, class probabilities for the ensemble classifier was calculated using the predicted class proportions observed in the B bootstrap samples.

Our objective with the 2nd analysis was to examine the inter-platform concordance between microarray and RNAseq platforms. Thus, we trained classifiers on a selected platform using the full dataset that included the both given training and test sets for making predictions on the other platform. However, since the classifier needed to run on both platforms for this analysis, each gene expression measurement was standardized, separately for both platforms, prior to the analysis.

For analyses 1 and 2, we selected an ensemble classifier developed with a set of M=7 standard classifiers, SVM, RF, LDA, PLS+RF, PLS+LDA, PCA+RF, PCA+LDA, and Recursive Partitioning (RPART). Primarily, classifiers are selected based on the prior information of their suitabilities in high dimensional data classification. Based on accuracies of predicted classes, each classifier was ranked for K number of performance measures (for example, overall accuracy, class specific accuracies ect.). Since the selection of performance measures for a multi-class classification problem is highly depend upon the aim of study; we optimized the overall prediction accuracy, and the class specific accuracy of each group for the 1st analysis. Furthermore we considered these performance measures to be equally important for classification (i.e., we used equal weights of w i =1, in Eq. (1)), whereas in the 2nd analysis in cross platforms, we focused only on the overall accuracy without optimizing multiple group specific performances. For these analyses, we chose B to be B=300. We performed a 10 fold cross-validation for each individual classifier to select the number of components for PLS and PCA methods, separately for two platforms. Assuming consistent performance in bootstrap samples similar to the original training data, we employed the same number of components to develop the ensemble classifier.

The 3rd analysis on identifying important variables is subdivided into following two parts.
  1. 1.

    Detecting important genes with the adjusted test set.

     
  2. 2.

    Detecting important genes with full data using the cross-validation method.

     

We applied a classifier on the perturbed training data resulted from randomly permuting gene expressions of a given gene to quantify its impact on the predictability of MOAs in a test set. Accordingly, each gene was ranked by a measure given by magnitude of accuracy reduction compared to the true accuracy (in unpermuted data), such that the rank 1 corresponds to the gene that has the highest negative impact on the overall prediction accuracy. In order to reduce the computational burden, we did not use the ensemble classifier for this purpose. Instead the component classifier PLS+LDA which had an overall accuracy close to that of the ensemble classifier was used. We performed theses analysis separately for both platforms to determine a common set of genes presented among the top 20 genes in both platforms.

For Analysis 3.1, we randomly permuted a gene’s expressions in the training set and then made predictions for the test set (adjusted test set) using the classifier trained on the permuted training data. The permutation procedure was repeated l times for each gene to calculate an average overall prediction accuracy (A). Finally, genes were ordered by A, ascending order. Here we chose l to be l=30 in order to achieve reasonably stable approximation, while keeping the computational costs in check.

Analysis 3.2 was performed using the full data which contained both originally given training and test sets. Here we applied the 5 fold cross-validation technique in order to evaluate the effect of each gene on classifying MOAs. Our approach consisted of two layers of randomization. For the jth, j=1,...,J, outer randomization, we randomly partitioned the dataset into 5 folds and selected a training set of 4 folds, while remaining fold was chosen as a test set. After randomly permuting the expressions of a given gene i across the above specified training set, a classifier was trained to predict on the selected test set. Now using the same approach we described in the previous part (Analysis 3.1) we obtained an average overall prediction accuracy \((A^{cv}_{i_{j}})\) by repeating the permutation l times. After that, the whole procedure was repeated J times for various random partition sets to obtain an average overall prediction accuracy (\(A^{cv}_{i}\)) for ith gene, based on all J scenarios.
$$A^{cv}_{i}=\frac{1}{J}\sum\limits_{j=1}^{J}A^{cv}_{i_{j}}. $$
Suppose A c v is the average true accuracy (unpermuted data) based on J random partition sets. Note that the magnitude of A c v can be varied. Thus a better measure will be a relative accuracy reduction (R i ) given by,
$$R_{i}=\frac{A^{cv}-A^{cv}_{i}}{A^{cv}}, $$
where large values of R i indicate high impacts on the classification. For Analysis 3.2, we used values l=30 and J=100, which stabilize the calculations without being computationally burdensome.

Discussion

In this study, we used an ensemble classifier built on a set of standard classifiers to predict the MOA in Rat liver experiment data profiled by both microarrays and RNASeq. The newly constructed ensemble classifier performed reasonably well in both platforms individually. Using a selected test set and a set of genes (those present in both platforms) we observe comparable overall predictability of MOAs in the two platforms with 75% and 67% accuracies for microarray and RNAseq, respectively. Similarly, we observe well matched accuracies of 50% for both platforms for the full test sets based on an alternative approach. In an earlier classification approach [6] applied on the same data, reported average overall accuracies of 58% and 61% for microarray and RNAseq, suggesting a slightly better predictability in RNA-seq. However outcomes of these two studies are somewhat incomparable due to the differences in the training and test data sets used. For example, we considered controls as another class, whereas in their analysis, controls were not considered as a separate class. Interestingly, once we trained classifiers to make predictions on cross platforms, the ensemble classifier provided 100% accurate predictions for all 8 classes presented in the whole experiment. This result exhibits a perfect cross platform concordance for the purpose of classification. Also, our study clearly demonstrates a high agreement between the individual classifiers’ performances in two genomic platforms. Except for few scenarios, the ensemble classifier performed the best with respect to the overall accuracy and other class specific measures, in all experiments. We observe widely different classification performances among standard classifiers, which reflects the unreliability of restricting to a single classifier in case of high dimensional classification problems. On the other hand, this also demonstrates the utility of the adaptive ensemble classifier which is expected to perform as good or better than the individual classifiers with respect to multiple performance measures.

Conclusion

In this study, we explored the inter-platform concordance between microarray and RNASeq in their ability to classify samples based on genomic information, using data profiled by a Rat Liver experiment. We used an ensemble classifier built on a set of seven standard classifiers to predict the MOA in Rat livers. The ensemble classifier performed reasonably well in both platforms individually, resulting respective 75% and 67% accuracies for microarray and RNAseq on a selected test set. When we trained classifiers to make predictions on cross platforms, the ensemble classifier provided remarkable 100% accurate predictions. This study demonstrates a high agreement between individual classifiers’ performances in two genomic platforms. Additionally, we identified a set of important genes those specifies MOAs, by focusing on their impact on the classification.

Reviewers’ comments

Reviewer’s report 1: Yiyi Liu (yiyi.liu@yale.edu), Yale University

In this manuscript, the authors investigated concordance between microarray and RNA-seq in classifying samples based on gene expression profiles. They tested the performances of eight classifiers, including one ensemble method, and obtained very interesting results. Overall the reviewer is positive about the work. There are several minor concerns that the authors need to address.
  1. 1.

    I suggest the authors add descriptions on the weights (w i ’s) they used in rank aggregation of the ensemble classifier. The authors explained the main idea of the aggregation method, but explicitly stating all the parameters could improve the readability of the paper.

     
  2. 2.

    The authors mentioned RNA-seq data are “normalized via the Magic normalization”. I suggest citing the normalization method paper for reference. method.

     
Authors’ response:
  1. 1.

    We have described the role and the choice of the weights.

     
  2. 2.

    The two suggested references have been added.

     

Reviewer’s report 2: Partha Dey (pdey.bit@gmail.com), Academy of Technology at Adisaptagram, Hooghly, India

The article “Inter-platform Concordance of Gene Expression Data for the Prediction of Chemical Mode of Action” by Siriwardhana et al. studies the consistency of the cross-platform classification accuracy between microarray and RNASeq in their ability to classify samples based on genomic information. Seven classifiers and an adaptive ensemble classifier developed around them were used to predict the Chemical Modes of Actions (MOA) on Rat Liver samples. The article is well written and nicely organized. In addition, addressing these few points should increase the impact of the research work across various spectrum of readers:
  1. 1.

    The “Results” section comes before the “Methods” section; if this is not due to some restriction of the publishers or typical of the field of investigation, the sequence may be reversed (to corroborate with usual practice in most research articles: after Methodology should come Results).

     
  2. 2.

    In the “Methods” section: The authors have mentioned the use of ’sampling with replacement.’ It would be relevant here to state the specific advantage of sampling with replacement as compared to sampling without replacement (which would result in a partition of the original training set into a pure-training and a in house-testing subsets– instead of some repeated data in the training samples and OOB samples for measuring the performance of the classifier). A brief description of the details of the different classifiers (viz. SVM, RF, LDA, PLS+RF, PLS+LDA, PCA+RF, PCA+LDA, and RPART), e.g. how many PCs were taken (or at least their range across different cases), whether linear or non-linear SVs, binary or n-ary partitioning, etc. may be provided to assist later users in this field to know the optimum classifier parameters.

     
  3. 3.

    In the “Discussion” section: Could a clue be given as to why the Ensemble classifier performed worse than at least one intrinsic classifier in those few scenarios? In particular, is a better ensemble approach possible, or is it in general impossible to have an ensemble classifier that performs best on all performance indices? It would be nice to have a commentary summarizing the important genes reported in Tables 6, 7, 8 and 9. For example those genes that appeared in most of the tables in Microarray or RNASeq, or both might be listed to enable the biologist to get the condensed information from this study.

     

Authors’ response: Sampling with replacement is part of bootstrap which is standard procedure in bagging. An advantage is that training data of the same size as the original can be created and also the out of bag samples can be used as test data in a natural way. The classifiers were described in Datta et al. (2010). The tuning parameters were selected by cross validation as described in the paper. The ensemble classifier is optimal in an overall sense as defined by the rank aggregation procedure. It may not be possible to beat every individual classifier with respect to every performance measure. We have commented on some genes in Section “ Importance of genes ”.

Abbreviations

DEGs: 

Differentially expressed geans

LDA: 

Linear discriminant analysis

MOA: 

Chemical mode of action

OOB: 

Out of bag

PCA: 

Principle component analysis

PCA+LDA: 

Linear discriminant analysis with principle component analysis

PCA+RF: 

Random forest with principle component analysis

PLS: 

Partial least squares

PLS+LDA: 

Linear discriminant analysis with partial least squares

PLS+RF: 

Random forest with partial least squares

RF: 

Random forest

RPART: 

Recursive partitioning

SVM: 

Support vector machine

Declarations

Funding

This work was supported by the NCI/NIH under Grant CA170091-01A1.

Authors’ contributions

SoD planned the study. CS performed the data analysis and wrote the first draft of the paper. SuD guided the biological aspects of the project. All authors took part in the final manuscript preparation. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Office of Biostatistics & Quantitative Health Sciences, University of Hawaii John A. Burns School of Medicine
(2)
Department of Biostatistics, University of Florida

References

  1. Marioni JC, Mason CE, Mane SM, Stephens M, Gilad Y. RNA-seq: An assessment of technical reproducibility and comparison with gene expression arrays. Genome Res. 2008; 18:1509–17.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Fu X, Fu N, Guo S, Yan Z, Xu Y, Hu H, Menze C, Chen W, Li Y, Zeng R, Khaitovic P. Estimating accuracy of RNA-Seq and microarrays with proteomics. BMC Genomics. 2009; 10:161.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Zhao S, Fung-Leung W, Bittner A, Ngo K, Liu X. Comparison of RNA-Seq and Microarray in Transcriptome Profiling of Activated T Cells. PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(1):e78644.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Guo Y, Sheng Q, Li J, Ye F, Samuels DC, Shyr Y. Large Scale Comparison of Gene Expression Levels by Microarrays and RNAseq Using TCGA Data. PLoS ONE. 2013; 8(8):e71462.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Xu X, Zhang Y, Williams J, Antoniou E, McCombie WR, Wu S, Zhu W, Davidson NO, Denoya P, Li E. Parallel comparison of Illumina RNA-Seq and Affymetrix microarray platforms on transcriptomic profiles generated from 5-aza-deoxy-cytidine treated HT-29 colon cancer cells and simulated datasets. BMC Bioinformatics. 2013; 14(Suppl 9):S1.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Wang C, Gong B, Bushel PR, et al. The concordance between RNA-seq and microarray data depends on chemical treatment and transcript abundance. Nat Biotechnol. 2014; 32:926–32.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Ma Q, Lu AYH. CYP1A Induction and Human Risk Assessment: An Evolving Tale of in Vitro and in Vivo Studies. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007; 35(7):1009–16.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Riedy M, Wang JY, Miller AP, Buckler A, Hall J, Guida M. Genomic organization of the UGT2b gene cluster on human chromosome 4q13. J Pharmacol Sci. 2000; 10(3):251–60.Google Scholar
  9. Iwata K, Matsuno K, Nishinaka T, Persson C, Yabe-Nishimura CJ. Aldose reductase inhibitors improve myocardial reperfusion injury in mice by a dual mechanism. J Pharmacol Sci. 2006; 102(1):37–46.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Valenti L, Canavesi E, Galmozzi E, Dongiovanni P, Rametta R, Maggioni P, Maggioni M, Fracanzani AL, Fargion S. Beta-globin mutations are associated with parenchymal siderosis and fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. J Hepatol. 2010; 53(5):927–33.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Isojima T, Doi K, Mitsui J, Oda Y, Tokuhiro E, Yasoda A, Yorifuji T, Horikawa R, Yoshimura J, Ishiura H, Morishita S, Tsuji S, Kitanaka S. A recurrent de novo FAM111A mutation causes Kenny-Caffey syndrome type 2. J Bone Miner Res. 2014; 29(4):992–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Lang T, Hitzl M, Burk O, Mornhinweg E, Keil A, Kerb R, Klein K, Zanger UM, Eichelbaum M, Fromm MF. Genetic polymorphisms in the multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 (ABCC3, MRP3) gene and relationship to its mRNA and protein expression in human liver. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2004; 14(4):155–64.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  13. Wiercinska E, Wickert L, Denecke B, Said HM, Hamzavi J, Gressner AM, Thorikay M, Dijke TP, Mertens PR, Breitkopf K, Dooley S. Id1 is a critical mediator in TGF-beta-induced transdifferentiation of rat hepatic stellate cells. Hepatology. 2006; 43(5):1032–41.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Datta S, Datta S, Pihur V. An adaptive optimal ensemble classifier via bagging and rank aggregation with application to high dimensional data. BMC Bioinformatics. 2010; 11:427.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Pihur V, Datta S, Datta S. Weighted rank aggregation of cluster validation measures: a Monte Carlo cross-entropy approach. em Bioinformatics. 2007; 23(13):1607–15.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  16. Pihur V, Datta S, Datta S. RankAggreg, an R package for weighted rank aggregation. BMC Bioinformatics. 2009; 10:62.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Shah J, Datta S, Datta S. A multi-loss super regression learner (MSRL) with application to survival prediction using proteomics. Comput Stat. 2014; 29(6):1749–67.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  18. Boulesteix A. PLS dimension reduction for classification. Stat Appl Genet Mol Biol Microarray Data. 2004; 3(1):1–30.Google Scholar
  19. Dai JJ, Lieu L, Rocke D. Dimension reduction for classification with gene expression microarray data. Stat Appl Genet Mol Biol Microarray Data. 2006; 5(1):1–19.Google Scholar
  20. Irizarry RA, Bolstad BM, Collin F, Cope LM, Hobbs B, Speed TP. Summaries of Affymetrix GeneChip probe level data. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003; 31(4):e15.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Peng X, Thierry-Mieg J, Thierry-Mieg D, et al. Tissue-specific transcriptome sequencing analysis expands the non-human primate reference transcriptome resource (NHPRTR). Nucleic Acids Res. 2014; 43:D737–42.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright

© The Author(s) 2016

Advertisement