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  1. This paper is an attempt to trace the evolution of the ribosome through the evolution of the universal P-loop GTPases that are involved with the ribosome in translation and with the attachment of the ribosome ...

    Authors: Hyman Hartman and Temple F Smith
    Citation: Biology Direct 2010 5:36
  2. Coding sequence (CDS) length, gene size, and intron length vary within a genome and among genomes. Previous studies in diverse organisms, including human, D. Melanogaster, C. elegans, S. cerevisiae, and Arabidops...

    Authors: You S Rao, Zhang F Wang, Xue W Chai, Guo Z Wu, Ming Zhou, Qing H Nie and Xi Q Zhang
    Citation: Biology Direct 2010 5:35
  3. Evolutionarily unrelated proteins that catalyze the same biochemical reactions are often referred to as analogous - as opposed to homologous - enzymes. The existence of numerous alternative, non-homologous enz...

    Authors: Marina V Omelchenko, Michael Y Galperin, Yuri I Wolf and Eugene V Koonin
    Citation: Biology Direct 2010 5:31
  4. Microbial consortia are a major form of life; however their stability conditions are poorly understood and are often explained in terms of species-specific defence mechanisms (secretion of extracellular matrix...

    Authors: Vittorio Venturi, Ádám Kerényi, Beáta Reiz, Dóra Bihary and Sándor Pongor
    Citation: Biology Direct 2010 5:30
  5. The transition from premalignant to invasive tumour growth is a prolonged multistep process governed by phenotypic adaptation to changing microenvironmental selection pressures. Cancer prevention strategies ar...

    Authors: Kieran Smallbone, Philip K Maini and Robert A Gatenby
    Citation: Biology Direct 2010 5:22
  6. The balance between self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells is expected to be tightly controlled in order to maintain tissue homeostasis throughout life, also in the face of environmental hazards. Theor...

    Authors: Zvia Agur, Yuri Kogan, Liora Levi, Hannah Harrison, Rebecca Lamb, Oleg U Kirnasovsky and Robert B Clarke
    Citation: Biology Direct 2010 5:20
  7. Understanding the origin of protein synthesis has been notoriously difficult. We have taken as a starting premise Wolf and Koonin's view that "evolution of the translation system is envisaged to occur in a com...

    Authors: Harold S Bernhardt and Warren P Tate
    Citation: Biology Direct 2010 5:16
  8. The mechanism by which the arthropod Oskar and vertebrate TDRD5/TDRD7 proteins nucleate or organize structurally related ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes, the polar granule and nuage, is poorly understood. Us...

    Authors: Vivek Anantharaman, Dapeng Zhang and L Aravind
    Citation: Biology Direct 2010 5:13
  9. Attempts to engage the scientific community to annotate biological data (such as protein/gene function) stored in databases have not been overly successful. There are several hypotheses on why this has not bee...

    Authors: Raja Mazumder, Darren A Natale, Jessica Anne Ecalnir Julio, Lai-Su Yeh and Cathy H Wu
    Citation: Biology Direct 2010 5:12
  10. The success of invertebrates throughout evolution is an excellent illustration of the efficiency of their defence strategies. Caenorhabditis elegans has proven to be an appropriate model for transcriptome studies...

    Authors: Annelies Bogaerts, Isabel Beets, Liesbet Temmerman, Liliane Schoofs and Peter Verleyen
    Citation: Biology Direct 2010 5:11
  11. The Z-curve is a three dimensional representation of DNA sequences proposed over a decade ago and has been extensively applied to sequence segmentation, horizontal gene transfer detection, and sequence analysi...

    Authors: Eran Elhaik, Dan Graur and Krešimir Josić
    Citation: Biology Direct 2010 5:10
  12. The transcription factor FOXP3 is essential for the development and function of CD4+CD25hiFOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, but also expressed in activated human helper T cells without acquisition of a regulatory...

    Authors: Michael Probst-Kepper and Jan Buer
    Citation: Biology Direct 2010 5:8
  13. Divergence of two independently evolving sequences that originated from a common ancestor can be described by two parameters, the asymptotic level of divergence E and the rate r at which this level of divergence ...

    Authors: Alexey S Kondrashov, Inna S Povolotskaya, Dmitry N Ivankov and Fyodor A Kondrashov
    Citation: Biology Direct 2010 5:5
  14. In several studies, secondary structures of ribosomal genes have been used to improve the quality of phylogenetic reconstructions. An extensive evaluation of the benefits of secondary structure, however, is la...

    Authors: Alexander Keller, Frank Förster, Tobias Müller, Thomas Dandekar, Jörg Schultz and Matthias Wolf
    Citation: Biology Direct 2010 5:4
  15. The bacterial elongation factor P (EF-P) is strictly conserved in bacteria and essential for protein synthesis. It is homologous to the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A). A highly conserved e...

    Authors: Marc Bailly and Valérie de Crécy-Lagard
    Citation: Biology Direct 2010 5:3
  16. Eukaryotic extracellular matrices such as proteoglycans, sclerotinized structures, mucus, external tests, capsules, cell walls and waxes contain highly modified proteins, glycans and other composite biopolymer...

    Authors: Vivek Anantharaman and L Aravind
    Citation: Biology Direct 2010 5:1
  17. Ribonucleotide reductase is the main control point of dNTP production. It has two subunits, R1, and R2 or p53R2. R1 has 5 possible catalytic site states (empty or filled with 1 of 4 NDPs), 5 possible s-site state...

    Authors: Tomas Radivoyevitch
    Citation: Biology Direct 2009 4:50
  18. A total of 929 polymorphic SNPs in EB (out of 54, 000 SNPs screened using a BovineSNP50 Illumina Genotyping BeadChip), and 1, 524 and 1, 403 polymorphic SNPs in WB and PB, respectively, were analysed. EB, WB a...

    Authors: Cino Pertoldi, Małgorzata Tokarska, Jan M Wójcik, Ditte Demontis, Volker Loeschcke, Vivi R Gregersen, David Coltman, Gregory A Wilson, Ettore Randi, Michael M Hansen and Christian Bendixen
    Citation: Biology Direct 2009 4:48
  19. Sequence related families of genes and proteins are common in bacterial genomes. In Escherichia coli they constitute over half of the genome. The presence of families and superfamilies of proteins suggest a hi...

    Authors: Margrethe H Serres, Alastair RW Kerr, Thomas J McCormack and Monica Riley
    Citation: Biology Direct 2009 4:46
  20. It is well-known that Charles Darwin sketched abstract trees of relationship in his 1837 notebook, and depicted a tree in the Origin of Species (1859). Here I attempt to place Darwin's trees in historical context...

    Authors: Mark A Ragan
    Citation: Biology Direct 2009 4:43
  21. The year 2009 is the 200th anniversary of the publication of Jean-Bapteste Lamarck's Philosophie Zoologique and the 150th anniversary of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species. Lamarck believed that evolution ...

    Authors: Eugene V Koonin and Yuri I Wolf
    Citation: Biology Direct 2009 4:42
  22. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells develop in the thymus and can suppress T cell proliferation, modulated by Foxp3 and cytokines; however, the relevance of CD44 in Treg cell development is less clear. To address...

    Authors: Tie Liu, Lynn Soong, Gang Liu, Rolf König and Ashok K Chopra
    Citation: Biology Direct 2009 4:40

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  • 2022 Citation Impact
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    3.8 - 5-year Impact Factor
    0.893 - SNIP (Source Normalized Impact per Paper)
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