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  1. Viruses rely on hosts for life and reproduction, cause a variety of symptoms from common cold to AIDS to COVID-19 and provoke public health threats claiming millions of lives around the globe. RNA editing, as ...

    Authors: Tongtong Zhu, Guangyi Niu, Yuansheng Zhang, Ming Chen, Chuan-Yun Li, Lili Hao and Zhang Zhang
    Citation: Biology Direct 2023 18:12
  2. Recent development of human three-dimensional organoid cultures has opened new doors and opportunities ranging from modelling human development in vitro to personalised cancer therapies. These new in vitro sys...

    Authors: Artem Smirnov, Gerry Melino and Eleonora Candi
    Citation: Biology Direct 2023 18:11
  3. In tumor therapy anti-angiogenic approaches have the potential to increase the efficacy of a wide variety of subsequently or co-administered agents, possibly by improving or normalizing the defective tumor vas...

    Authors: David Ascheid, Magdalena Baumann, Caroline Funke, Julia Volz, Jürgen Pinnecker, Mike Friedrich, Marie Höhn, Rajender Nandigama, Süleyman Ergün, Bernhard Nieswandt, Katrin G. Heinze and Erik Henke
    Citation: Biology Direct 2023 18:10
  4. Long-term consumption of an excessive fat and sucrose diet (Western diet, WD) has been considered a risk factor for metabolic syndrome (MS) and cardiovascular disease. Caveolae and caveolin-1 (CAV-1) proteins ...

    Authors: I.-Fan Liu, Tzu-Chieh Lin, Shu-Chi Wang, Chia-Hung Yen, Chia-Yang Li, Hsuan-Fu Kuo, Chong-Chao Hsieh, Chia-Yuan Chang, Chuang-Rung Chang, Yung-Hsiang Chen, Yu-Ru Liu, Tsung-Ying Lee, Chi-Yuan Huang, Chih-Hsin Hsu, Shing-Jong Lin and Po-Len Liu
    Citation: Biology Direct 2023 18:9
  5. Lung cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers characterized by high mortality, metastatic potential, and recurrence. Deregulated gene expression of lung cancer, likewise in many other solid tumor...

    Authors: Melina Muñoz-Bernart, Nicolás Budnik, Araceli Castro, Malena Manzi, María Eugenia Monge, Julieta Pioli, Sebastián Defranchi, Gustavo Parrilla, Juan Pablo Santilli, Kevin Davies, Joaquín M. Espinosa, Ken Kobayashi, Carlos Vigliano and Carolina Perez-Castro
    Citation: Biology Direct 2023 18:8

    The Correction to this article has been published in Biology Direct 2023 18:13

  6. Although Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the most studied prokaryote organism in the history of life sciences, many molecular mechanisms and gene functions encoded in its genome remain to be discovered. This work a...

    Authors: Erwin Tantoso, Birgit Eisenhaber, Swati Sinha, Lars Juhl Jensen and Frank Eisenhaber
    Citation: Biology Direct 2023 18:7
  7. Acute myocardial infarction is a major health problem and is the leading cause of death worldwide. Myocardial apoptosis induced by myocardial infarction injury is involved in the pathophysiology of heart failu...

    Authors: Tingting Wang, Tao Li, Xiaolin Niu, Lang Hu, Jin Cheng, Dong Guo, He Ren, Ran Zhao, Zhaole Ji, Pengyun Liu, Yan Li and Yanjie Guo
    Citation: Biology Direct 2023 18:6
  8. Cuproptosis is a new type of copper-induced cell death that is characterized by the aggregation of lipoylated tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle proteins. However, its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain...

    Authors: Yuqiao Chen, Lu Tang, Wentao Huang, Fakolade Hannah Abisola, Youyu Zhang, Gewen Zhang and Lei Yao
    Citation: Biology Direct 2023 18:4
  9. Long intergenic non-coding RNA 326 (LINC00326) modulates hepatocarcinogenic lipid metabolism. However, the ability of LINC00326 to modulate the highly aggressive non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is unknow...

    Authors: Yingqian Zhang, Jiao Yuan, Mengfei Guo, Run Xiang, Tianpeng Xie, Xiang Zhuang, Wei Dai, Qiang Li and Qi Lai
    Citation: Biology Direct 2023 18:3
  10. Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis (RIPF) is a major side effect experienced for patients with thoracic cancers after radiotherapy. RIPF is poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options available in clinic. La...

    Authors: Zhao Ju, Huiji Pan, Can Qu, Liang Xiao, Meiling Zhou, Yin Wang, Jinhua Luo, Liangfang Shen, Pingkun Zhou and Ruixue Huang
    Citation: Biology Direct 2023 18:2
  11. Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a highly lethal malignancy that requires effective novel therapies. M2 macrophages are abundant in the PC microenvironment and promote cancer progression. Exosomes are emerging mediat...

    Authors: Ke Zhang, Yu-Jie Li, Lin-Jia Peng, Hui-Feng Gao, Lu-Ming Liu and Hao Chen
    Citation: Biology Direct 2023 18:1
  12. Metastasis constitutes one of the major causes of tumor-related death in gastric cancer (GC), and understanding key events in the initiation of this phenotypic switch may provide therapeutic opportunities. Lon...

    Authors: Yunxin Lu, Qi Meng, Long Bai, Ruobing Wang, Yong Sun, Jiaqi Li, Jun Fan and Tian Tian
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:41
  13. ACTN4 is an actin-binding protein involved in many cellular processes, including cancer development. High ACTN4 expression is often associated with a poor prognosis. However, it has been identified as a positi...

    Authors: Daria Kriger, Ksenia Novitskaya, Giomar Vasileva, Ekaterina Lomert, Nikolai D. Aksenov, Nikolai A. Barlev and Dmitri Tentler
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:40
  14. Originally discovered by Nielsen in 1991, peptide nucleic acids and other artificial genetic polymers have gained a lot of interest from the scientific community. Due to their unique biophysical features these...

    Authors: Gleb S. Ivanov, Vyacheslav G. Tribulovich, Nikolay B. Pestov, Temitope I. David, Abdul-Saleem Amoah, Tatyana V. Korneenko and Nikolai A. Barlev
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:39
  15. Nuclear organisation and architecture are essential for the maintenance of genomic integrity as well as for the epigenetic regulations and gene expression. Disruption of lamin B1, major structural and function...

    Authors: Emanuele Panatta, Alessio Butera, Ivana Celardo, Marcel Leist, Gerry Melino and Ivano Amelio
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:38
  16. In mouse liver hepatocytes, nearly half of the surface area of every mitochondrion is covered by wrappER, a wrapping-type of ER that is rich in fatty acids and synthesizes lipoproteins (VLDL) (Anastasia et al....

    Authors: Nicolò Ilacqua, Irene Anastasia, Danylo Aloshyn, Rana Ghandehari-Alavijeh, Emily Ann Peluso, Madelaine C. Brearley-Sholto, Leonardo V. Pellegrini, Andrea Raimondi, Thomas Q. de Aguiar Vallim and Luca Pellegrini
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:37
  17. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) are key regulators of immune responses. The cynomolgus macaque, an Old World monkey species, can be applied as...

    Authors: Qingxiu Hu, Xiaoqi Huang, Yabin Jin, Rui Zhang, Aimin Zhao, Yiping Wang, Chenyun Zhou, Weixin Liu, Xunwei Liu, Chunhua Li, Guangyi Fan, Min Zhuo, Xiaoning Wang, Fei Ling and Wei Luo
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:36
  18. Acute lung injury (ALI) is a major cause of respiratory failure in critically ill patients that results in significant morbidity and mortality. Recent studies indicate that cell-based therapies may be benefici...

    Authors: Lijuan Xu, Yunlou Zhu, Congye Li, Qixing Wang, Lijie Ma, Junjie Wang and Shouqin Zhang
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:35
  19. The upregulated expression of CXCL1 has been validated in colorectal cancer patients. As a potential biotherapeutic target for colorectal cancer, the mechanism by which CXCL1 affects the development of colorec...

    Authors: Changhua Zhuo, Qiang Ruan, Xiangqian Zhao, Yangkun Shen and Ruirong Lin
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:34
  20. Pancreatic cancer (PC) is highly malignant. Chemotherapy is the main treatment strategy, especially for patients with advanced PC. However, chemoresistance has always been a frequently encountered bottleneck. ...

    Authors: Chengjie Lin, Yan Wang, Yihong Dong, Shihui Lai, Liang Wang, Shangeng Weng and Xiang Zhang
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:33
  21. Cardiac fibrosis is a leading cause of cardiac dysfunction in patients with diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms of cardiac fibrosis remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the role of the long...

    Authors: Tingwei Peng, Mingchuan Liu, Lang Hu, Dong Guo, Di Wang, Bingchao Qi, Gaotong Ren, Chenchen Hu, Feng Zhang, Hyung J. Chun, Liqiang Song, Jianqiang Hu and Yan Li
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:32
  22. Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) are emerging natural nanoplatforms in cancer diagnosis and therapy, through the incorporation of signal components or drugs in their structure. However, for their translatio...

    Authors: Ana Santos-Coquillat, Desiré Herreros-Pérez, Rafael Samaniego, María Isabel González, Lorena Cussó, Manuel Desco and Beatriz Salinas
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:31
  23. Symbiotic relationships are ubiquitous in the biosphere. Inter-species symbiosis is impacted by intra-specific distinctions, in particular, those defined by the age structure of a population. Older individuals...

    Authors: Carsten O. S. Portner, Edward G. Rong, Jared A. Ramirez, Yuri I. Wolf, Angelique P. Bosse, Eugene V. Koonin and Nash D. Rochman
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:30
  24. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignant neoplasms worldwide. Although marker genes associated with CRC have been identified previously, only a few have fulfilled the therapeutic demand. The...

    Authors: Di Wang, Junye Liufu, Qiyuan Yang, Shengqun Dai, Jiaqi Wang and Biao Xie
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:29
  25. The mechanism of cuproptosis, a novel copper-induced cell death by regulating tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA)-related genes, has been reported to regulate oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS) in cancers an...

    Authors: Shichao Long, Ya Wang, Yuqiao Chen, Tianshu Fang, Yuanbing Yao and Kai Fu
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:28
  26. RNA–protein interactions are crucial for diverse biological processes. In prokaryotes, RNA–protein interactions enable adaptive immunity through CRISPR-Cas systems. These defence systems utilize CRISPR RNA (cr...

    Authors: Ho-min Park, Yunseol Park, Urta Berani, Eunkyu Bang, Joris Vankerschaver, Arnout Van Messem, Wesley De Neve and Hyunjin Shim
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:27
  27. Metabolic reprogramming is commonly recognized as one important hallmark of cancers. Cancer cells present significant alteration of glucose metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and lipid metabolism. Recent f...

    Authors: Massimiliano Agostini, Mara Mancini and Eleonora Candi
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:26
  28. Alamandine (Ala) is the newest identified peptide of the renin-angiotensin system and has protective effect on myocyte hypertrophy. However, it is still unclear whether Ala can alleviate heart failure (HF). Th...

    Authors: Kun Zhao, Tianhua Xu, Yukang Mao, Xiaoguang Wu, Dongxu Hua, Yanhui Sheng and Peng Li
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:25
  29. Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domains are cytoplasmic domain that mediates receptor signalling. These domains are present in proteins like Toll-like receptors (TLR), its signaling adaptors and Interleukins...

    Authors: Shailya Verma and Ramanathan Sowdhamini
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:24
  30. Recent years have witnessed a growing academic interest in the effects of lncRNAs on tumors. LINC01419 is found to facilitate proliferation and metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) cells, but there is a gr...

    Authors: Zhao Chen, Weijian Tang, Yuhan Zhou and Zhengfu He
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:23
  31. Evolutionary rate is a key characteristic of gene families that is linked to the functional importance of the respective genes as well as specific biological functions of the proteins they encode. Accurate est...

    Authors: Svetlana Karamycheva, Yuri I. Wolf, Erez Persi, Eugene V. Koonin and Kira S. Makarova
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:22
  32. Amphiregulin (AREG) is a ligand of epidermal growth factor receptor and participates in the fibrosis of multiple organs. However, whether AREG can regulate hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is not well known. This r...

    Authors: Mingyue Ji, Yun Liu, Zhi Zuo, Cheng Xu, Li Lin and Yong Li
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:21
  33. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs), have been extensively investigated in diseases. The upregulated expression of miR-19b-3p has been validated in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Nonetheless, it regulator...

    Authors: Bihong Liao, Shaohong Dong, Zhenglei Xu, Fei Gao, Suihao Zhang and Ruijuan Liang
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:20
  34. Cancer metabolism is largely altered compared to normal cells. This study aims to explore critical metabolism pathways in colon adenocarcinoma (COAD), and reveal the possible mechanism of their role in cancer ...

    Authors: Shuang Wu, Yuzhu Gong, Jianfang Chen, Xiang Zhao, Huimin Qing, Yan Dong, Sisi Li, Jianjun Li and Zhe Wang
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:19
  35. “Can order spring from Chaos?” is the title of an extensive Report on Italian science published by NATURE on 12 May 1983 and written by Robert Walgate, the Chief European Correspondent. It is a twenty pages co...

    Authors: Maurizio Brunori
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:18
  36. RNF8 is an E3 ligase identified as a critical DNA damage-responsive protein. Recently, multiple reports have shown that RNF8 could be used as an important therapeutic target for cancer chemo/radiotherapy. Howe...

    Authors: Chuanyang Liu, Jingyu Kuang, Yuxuan Wang, Ting Duan, Lu Min, Chenyu Lu, Tianyi Zhang, Ruifen Chen, Ying Wu and Lingyun Zhu
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:17
  37. Colorectal carcinoma is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths, and indeed, rectal cancer accounting for approximately one third of newly diagnosed patients. Gold standard in the treatment of rectal...

    Authors: Andrea M. Guida, Bruno Sensi, Vincenzo Formica, Rolando M. D’Angelillo, Mario Roselli, Giovanna Del Vecchio Blanco, Piero Rossi, Gabriella T. Capolupo, Marco Caricato and Giuseppe S. Sica
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:16
  38. This is a review of the current state of molecular profiling in gastrointestinal (GI) cancers and what to expect from this evolving field in the future. Individualized medicine is moving from broad panel testi...

    Authors: Reetu Mukherji, Chao Yin, Rumaisa Hameed, Ali Z. Alqahtani, Monika Kulasekaran, Aiwu R. He, Benjamin A. Weinberg, John L. Marshall, Marion L. Hartley and Marcus S. Noel
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:15
  39. Rodents, such as mice, are vulnerable targets, and potential intermediate hosts, of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, including Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Omicron. N501Y in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of Spik...

    Authors: Yichao Zhu, Wenzhao Zhou, Zubiao Niu, Jiayi Sun, Zhengrong Zhang, Qinqin Li, You Zheng, Chenxi Wang, Lihua Gao and Qiang Sun
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:14
  40. The evolution of spliceosomal introns has been widely studied among various eukaryotic groups. Researchers nearly reached the consensuses on the pattern and the mechanisms of intron losses and gains across euk...

    Authors: Ming-Yue Ma, Ji Xia, Kun-Xian Shu and Deng-Ke Niu
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:13
  41. The RNA world hypothesis cannot address most of the questions of the origin of life without violating the continuity principle (small Darwinian steps without foresight and miracles). Moreover, the RNA world is...

    Authors: Besik Kankia
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:12
  42. Prime numbers have been attracting the interest of scientists since the first formulation of Euclid’s theorem in 300 B.C. Nowadays, physicists and mathematicians continue to formulate new theorems about prime ...

    Authors: Maria Loconsole and Lucia Regolin
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:11
  43. Historically, the molecular classification of colorectal cancer (CRC) was based on the global genomic status, which identified microsatellite instability in mismatch repair (MMR) deficient CRC, and chromosomal...

    Authors: Pasquale Sibilio, Francesca Belardinilli, Valerio Licursi, Paola Paci and Giuseppe Giannini
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:10
  44. Migrasomes, released by migrating cells, belong to the heterogeneous world of extracellular vesicles (EVs). However, they can be distinguished from all other members of EVs by their size, biorigin and protein ...

    Authors: Arianna Di Daniele, Ylenia Antonucci and Silvia Campello
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:8
  45. Bacteria and archaea produce an enormous diversity of modified peptides that are involved in various forms of inter-microbial conflicts or communication. A vast class of such peptides are Ribosomally synthesiz...

    Authors: Kira S. Makarova, Brittney Blackburne, Yuri I. Wolf, Anastasia Nikolskaya, Svetlana Karamycheva, Marlene Espinoza, Clifton E. Barry III, Carole A. Bewley and Eugene V. Koonin
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:7
  46. Adaptation of the lipid metabolism participates  in cancer pathogenesis, facilitating energy storage and influencing cell fate and control of molecular signalling. The tumour suppressor protein p53 is a molecu...

    Authors: Alessio Butera, Micaela Roy, Carlotta Zampieri, Eleonora Mammarella, Emanuele Panatta, Gerry Melino, Angelo D’Alessandro and Ivano Amelio
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:6
  47. In 2009, new EU legislation regulating advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs), consisting of gene therapy, tissue engineering and cell-based medicines, was introduced. Although less than 20 ATMPs were aut...

    Authors: Simon Hawlina, Helena H. Chowdhury, Tomaž Smrkolj and Robert Zorec
    Citation: Biology Direct 2022 17:5

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