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  1. Content type: Research

    Programmed ribosomal frameshifting (PRF) is a gene expression mechanism which enables the translation of two N-terminally coincident, C-terminally distinct protein products from a single mRNA. Many viruses uti...

    Authors: Adam M. Dinan, John F. Atkins and Andrew E. Firth

    Citation: Biology Direct 2017 12:24

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  2. Content type: Opinion

    High-level debates in evolutionary biology often treat the Modern Synthesis as a framework of population genetics, or as an intellectual lineage with a changing distribution of beliefs. Unfortunately, these fl...

    Authors: Arlin Stoltzfus

    Citation: Biology Direct 2017 12:23

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  3. Content type: Research

    Bacterial species present in multispecies microbial communities often react to the same chemical signal but at vastly different concentrations. The existence of different response thresholds with respect to th...

    Authors: János Juhász, Dóra Bihary, Attila Jády, Sándor Pongor and Balázs Ligeti

    Citation: Biology Direct 2017 12:22

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  4. Content type: Research

    Oil palm is an important source of edible oil. The importance of the crop, as well as its long breeding cycle (10-12 years) has led to the sequencing of its genome in 2013 to pave the way for genomics-guided b...

    Authors: Kuang-Lim Chan, Tatiana V. Tatarinova, Rozana Rosli, Nadzirah Amiruddin, Norazah Azizi, Mohd Amin Ab Halim, Nik Shazana Nik Mohd Sanusi, Nagappan Jayanthi, Petr Ponomarenko, Martin Triska, Victor Solovyev, Mohd Firdaus-Raih, Ravigadevi Sambanthamurthi, Denis Murphy and Eng-Ti Leslie Low

    Citation: Biology Direct 2017 12:21

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  5. Content type: Research

    Much effort is underway to build and upgrade databases and tools related to occurrence, diversity, and characterization of CRISPR-Cas systems. As microbial communities and their genome complements are unearthe...

    Authors: Alice Toms and Rodolphe Barrangou

    Citation: Biology Direct 2017 12:20

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  6. Content type: Research

    Cancer cell invasion, dissemination, and metastasis have been linked to an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of individual tumour cells. During EMT, adhesion molecules like E-cadherin are downregulated a...

    Authors: David Reher, Barbara Klink, Andreas Deutsch and Anja Voss-Böhme

    Citation: Biology Direct 2017 12:18

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  7. Content type: Research

    During the generation and evolution of the eukaryotic cell, a proteobacterial endosymbiont was re-fashioned into the mitochondrion, an organelle that appears to have been present in the ancestor of all present...

    Authors: Güleycan Lutfullahoğlu-Bal, Abdurrahman Keskin, Ayşe Bengisu Seferoğlu and Cory D. Dunn

    Citation: Biology Direct 2017 12:16

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  8. Content type: Research

    A basic tenet of protein science is that all information about the spatial structure of proteins is present in their sequences. Nonetheless, many proteins fail to attain native structure upon experimental dena...

    Authors: Irina Sorokina and Arcady Mushegian

    Citation: Biology Direct 2017 12:14

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  9. Content type: Discovery notes

    We report a comprehensive computational dissection of the domain architecture of the SAMD9 family proteins that are involved in antivirus and antitumor response in humans. We show that the SAMD9 protein family...

    Authors: Sergei L. Mekhedov, Kira S. Makarova and Eugene V. Koonin

    Citation: Biology Direct 2017 12:13

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  10. Content type: Discovery notes

    The protein Gcn1 (General control non-derepressible 1) is found in virtually all eukaryotes, and is a key component of the general amino acid control signal transduction pathway. This pathway is best known for...

    Authors: Ramachandran Rakesh, Rangachari Krishnan, Evelyn Sattlegger and Narayanaswamy Srinivasan

    Citation: Biology Direct 2017 12:12

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  11. Content type: Research

    TRIF is a key protein in antiviral innate immunity, operating downstream of TLRs. TRIF activation leads to the production of interferon-β and pro-inflammatory cytokines. There is evidence from experiments to s...

    Authors: Jarjapu Mahita and Ramanathan Sowdhamini

    Citation: Biology Direct 2017 12:9

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  12. Content type: Research

    The transition between epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes (EMT) occurs in a variety of contexts. It is critical for mammalian development and it is also involved in tumor initiation and progression. Master ...

    Authors: Yoana Dimitrova, Andreas J. Gruber, Nitish Mittal, Souvik Ghosh, Beatrice Dimitriades, Daniel Mathow, William Aaron Grandy, Gerhard Christofori and Mihaela Zavolan

    Citation: Biology Direct 2017 12:8

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  13. Content type: Review

    Mutations in the gene encoding for the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin are associated to a rare form of familiar autosomal recessive Parkinsonism. Despite decades of research on the Parkin protein, whose structure ...

    Authors: Joy Chakraborty, Valentina Basso and Elena Ziviani

    Citation: Biology Direct 2017 12:6

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  14. Content type: Research

    Recent developments of high throughput sequencing technologies allow the characterization of the microbial communities inhabiting our world. Various metagenomic studies have suggested using microbial taxa as p...

    Authors: Mustafa Alshawaqfeh, Ahmad Bashaireh, Erchin Serpedin and Jan Suchodolski

    Citation: Biology Direct 2017 12:4

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  15. Content type: Review

    The past decade has seen dramatic progress in our understanding of membrane contact sites (MCS). Important examples of these are endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria contact sites. ER-mitochondria contacts ...

    Authors: Maria Sol Herrera-Cruz and Thomas Simmen

    Citation: Biology Direct 2017 12:3

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  16. Content type: Research

    Molecular phenomena driving pathological aggregation in neurodegenerative diseases are not completely understood yet. Peculiar is the case of Spinocerebellar Ataxia 3 (SCA3) where the conformational properties...

    Authors: Gianvito Grasso, Jack A. Tuszynski, Umberto Morbiducci, Ginevra Licandro, Andrea Danani and Marco A. Deriu

    Citation: Biology Direct 2017 12:2

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  17. Content type: Research

    Acanthamoebidae is a “family” level amoebozoan group composed of the genera Acanthamoeba, Protacanthamoeba, and very recently Luapeleamoeba. This clade of amoebozoans has received considerable attention from the ...

    Authors: Alexander K. Tice, Lora L. Shadwick, Anna Maria Fiore-Donno, Stefan Geisen, Seungho Kang, Gabriel A. Schuler, Frederick W. Spiegel, Katherine A. Wilkinson, Michael Bonkowski, Kenneth Dumack, Daniel J. G. Lahr, Eckhard Voelcker, Steffen Clauß, Junling Zhang and Matthew W. Brown

    Citation: Biology Direct 2016 11:69

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  18. Content type: Research

    It is believed that all cancers occur due to the mutation or change in one or more genes. In order to investigate the significance of the biological pathways which are interrupted by these genetic mutations, w...

    Authors: Sinjini Sikdar, Somnath Datta and Susmita Datta

    Citation: Biology Direct 2016 11:65

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  19. Content type: Hypothesis

    The set of forces and sequence of events that govern the transition from an unfolded polypeptide chain to a functional protein with correct spatial structure remain incompletely known, despite the importance o...

    Authors: Irina Sorokina and Arcady Mushegian

    Citation: Biology Direct 2016 11:64

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  20. Content type: Research

    While the local-mode HMMER3 is notable for its massive speed improvement, the slower glocal-mode HMMER2 is more exact for domain annotation by enforcing full domain-to-sequence alignments. Since a unit of doma...

    Authors: Choon-Kong Yap, Birgit Eisenhaber, Frank Eisenhaber and Wing-Cheong Wong

    Citation: Biology Direct 2016 11:63

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  21. Content type: Research

    Most of the eukaryotic genome is transcribed, yielding a complex network of transcripts including thousands of lncRNAs that generally lack protein coding potential. However, only a small percentage of these mo...

    Authors: Herah Hansji, Euphemia Y. Leung, Bruce C. Baguley, Graeme J. Finlay, David Cameron-Smith, Vandre C. Figueiredo and Marjan E. Askarian-Amiri

    Citation: Biology Direct 2016 11:62

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  22. Content type: Research

    Importins and exportins influence gene expression by enabling nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of transcription factors. A key transcription factor of innate immunity, NF-κB, is sequestered in the cytoplasm by its ...

    Authors: Zbigniew Korwek, Karolina Tudelska, Paweł Nałęcz-Jawecki, Maciej Czerkies, Wiktor Prus, Joanna Markiewicz, Marek Kochańczyk and Tomasz Lipniacki

    Citation: Biology Direct 2016 11:61

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  23. Content type: APPLICATION NOTE

    Transcriptome data from the gene knockout experiment in mouse is widely used to investigate functions of genes and relationship to phenotypes. When a gene is knocked out, it is important to identify which gene...

    Authors: Benjamin Hur, Sangsoo Lim, Heejoon Chae, Seokjun Seo, Sunwon Lee, Jaewoo Kang and Sun Kim

    Citation: Biology Direct 2016 11:57

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  24. Content type: Research

    Accurate estimation of the isoelectric point (pI) based on the amino acid sequence is useful for many analytical biochemistry and proteomics techniques such as 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, or capillary...

    Authors: Lukasz P. Kozlowski

    Citation: Biology Direct 2016 11:55

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  25. Content type: Research

    The Tim17 family of proteins plays a fundamental role in the biogenesis of mitochondria. Three Tim17 family proteins, Tim17, Tim22, and Tim23, are the central components of the widely conserved multi-subunit p...

    Authors: Vojtěch Žárský and Pavel Doležal

    Citation: Biology Direct 2016 11:54

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  26. Content type: Research

    Evolutionary game theory (EGT) has been widely used to simulate tumour processes. In almost all studies on EGT models analysis is limited to two or three phenotypes. Our model contains four main phenotypes. Mo...

    Authors: Andrzej Świerniak and Michał Krześlak

    Citation: Biology Direct 2016 11:53

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  27. Content type: Research

    Gene covariation networks are commonly used to study biological processes. The inference of gene covariation networks from observational data can be challenging, especially considering the large number of play...

    Authors: Anatoly Yambartsev, Michael A. Perlin, Yevgeniy Kovchegov, Natalia Shulzhenko, Karina L. Mine, Xiaoxi Dong and Andrey Morgun

    Citation: Biology Direct 2016 11:52

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  28. Content type: Research

    Leukemias are malignant proliferative disorders of the blood forming system. Sequencing studies demonstrate that the leukemic cell population consists of multiple clones. The genetic relationship between the d...

    Authors: Thomas Stiehl, Christoph Lutz and Anna Marciniak-Czochra

    Citation: Biology Direct 2016 11:51

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  29. Content type: Research

    It has been demonstrated that a pathway-based feature selection method that incorporates biological information within pathways during the process of feature selection usually outperforms a gene-based feature ...

    Authors: Suyan Tian, Howard H. Chang and Chi Wang

    Citation: Biology Direct 2016 11:50

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  30. Content type: Comment

    Although biology has achieved great successes in recent years, we have not got a clear idea on “what is life?” Actually, as explained here, the main reason for this situation is that there are two completely d...

    Authors: Wentao Ma

    Citation: Biology Direct 2016 11:49

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  31. Content type: Discovery notes

    Recent analyses of next-generation sequencing datasets have shown that cell-specific regulatory elements in stem cells are marked with distinguishable patterns of transcription factor (TF) binding and epigenet...

    Authors: Esra Kurum, Bérénice A. Benayoun, Ankit Malhotra, Joshy George and Duygu Ucar

    Citation: Biology Direct 2016 11:47

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  32. Content type: Research

    Cpf1 nucleases have recently been repurposed for site-specific genome modification. Two members of the Cpf1 family, the AsCpf1 from Acidaminococcus sp. and the LbCpf1 from Lachnospiraceae bacterium were shown to ...

    Authors: Eszter Tóth, Nóra Weinhardt, Petra Bencsura, Krisztina Huszár, Péter I. Kulcsár, András Tálas, Elfrieda Fodor and Ervin Welker

    Citation: Biology Direct 2016 11:46

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