Skip to main content

Table 1 Effects of physical exercise on microglia

From: Lifestyle-dependent microglial plasticity: training the brain guardians

Species CNS region Experimental paradigm Microglial changes References
Mice Whole brain Treadmill for 6 weeks In EAE model (transfer of encephalitogenic T cells), exercise protected the CNS against autoimmune inflammation by reducing microglial-derived ROS production, neurotoxicity and pro-inflammatory responses [71]
Mice Hippocampus or remaining brain Running wheel for 10 weeks Aged mice showed a greater proportion of CD86 and MHC II positive microglia. In aged females, access to a running wheel decreased proportion of CD86 and MHC II positive microglia in the hippocampus whereas aged males in the running group showed a decrease in the proportion of CD86 positive microglia in the brain and an increase in the proportion of MHC II positive microglia in hippocampus and brain [63]
Mice Hippocampus Treadmill for 8 weeks Treadmill running inhibited the excessive reactivity of microglia in hippocampus of the fluoride-toxic mice, accompanied with the alteration of neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathway [140]
Mice Spinal cord Running wheel for 8 weeks Exercise reduced microglial reactivity thus preventing age-related loss of motor neurones [141]
Mice Hippocampus Treadmill for 9 days Exercise protected against LPS-induced memory impairment with concomitant attenuation of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-10 mRNA expression. Exercise abolished LPS-induced response of astrocytes and microglia [59]
Rat Hippocampus and striatum Running wheel for 4 weeks Exercise reduced microglial reactivity and partially prevented damage to dopaminergic neurones in a rat model of PD [69]
Mice Hippocampus Running wheel for 2 weeks Microglia mediate exercise-induced increase in neural precursor cell activity through fractalkine signalling [54]
Mice Hippocampus Running wheel for 10 days Exercise increases microglial proliferation without morphological, antigenic or transcriptional changes [48]
Mice Cortices Running wheel for 10 days Exercise led to regional increase in microglia proliferation [47]
Mice Striatum and Substantia nigra Treadmill for 4 weeks Exercise prevented dopaminergic neuronal loss by suppressing microglial reactivity in a PD model [68]
Mice Hippocampus Treadmill for 12 weeks Exercise preserved hippocampal cognitive function, suppressed β-amyloid accumulation in the hippocampus in APP/PS1 mice, and attenuates oxidative stress possibly through modulating microglia [65]
Rat Hippocampus Treadmill for 4 weeks Exercise inhibited reactive gliosis following STZ insult, reduced expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and enhanced expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine in the hippocampus [142]
  1. EAE Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, LPS lipopolysaccharide, APP/PS1 amyloid precursor protein/presenilin1 mouse Alzheimer's disease model mice, PD Parkinson disease, ROS reactive oxygen species