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Table 1 Comparison of cell invasivity mechanisms in model cell types

From: Invasive cells in animals and plants: searching for LECA machineries in later eukaryotic life

Process or component Invadopodia Neurites Pollen tubes and root hairs
Matrix loosening or detachment Yes (proteases) Yes (SPARC-like1, reelin) Yes (xylanases in pollen tubes, secretion of mucilage facilitating movement through soil in root hairs)
Branched actin network at or close to leading edge or tip Yes (structural role) Yes Yes (delivery of secretory vesicles)
Actin nucleation mechanism(s) involved Arp2/3, formins (mDia1-3) Arp2/3, formins (DAAM) Formins
Microtubules required Yes (for extension) Partly (for guidance or orientation) Partly (for orientation)
RHO class GTPases involved Cdc42 Rac1, Cdc42, RhoA (predominantly Rac1) Rop
ARF class GTPases involved Arf6 Arf6 Arf1
RAB class GTPases involved Rab8, Rab25, Rab27 Rab8, Rab17, Rab22 Rab8/RabE, Rab11/RabA, Rab1/RabD
Exocyst Yes (via Cdc42, RhoA and Arp2/3; for MMPs secretion and actin polymerization) Yes (via RalA and TC10) Yes (via Rop – maybe indirectly – and Rab; for membrane turnover and cell wall modifications)
Membrane microdomains as scaffolds for signalling Cholesterol, sphingolipids Cholesterol, sphingolipids Sterols
PtdIns signalling Yes (PtdIns(4,5)P2) Yes (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, DAG, IP3) Yes (PtdIns(4,5)P2, PtdIns(3,4,5)P3)
ROS signalling Localized production by Nox regulated via Src Via Nip1/Duoxa1 or NGF, role in differentiation Localized production by Nox regulated via Ca2+