Evolution of (a) the number of waste catalytic directions (color lines correspond to the population average of the five enzymes of the system with chromosomes; black line shows the average number of waste catalytic directions in case of independent replicators) and (b) the flux (both direct and waste) in the 5-step reaction network. Both fluxes are normalized (the unity of the direct flux corresponds to the optimal enzyme configuration). The direct flux fails to reach its maximal value due to recurrent mutations. (c) The stars represent the catalytic activities of the five enzymes relative to the maximal value represented by the circle at every 5·105 time step, beginning at 2·105. The sizes of the five substrates are 1.0×2.5×4.0×5.5×7.0, and the cyclic permutation of these sizes. Initially all enzymes is a hypercube with a side of 9.0. These cubes are large enough to fit onto every substrate.