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Table 5 Summary of data used to support actinobacterial ancestry of archaea.

From: The origin of a derived superkingdom: how a gram-positive bacterium crossed the desert to become an archaeon

Trait Supports actinobacterial ancestry of Neomura Supports actinobacterial Ancestry of Eukaryotes Exclusive to Actinobacteria among Bacteria
20s proteasome Yes Yes In a few other bacterial genomes
CCA added post-transcriptionally No No Also in Firmicutes
Sterols No Yes In a few other bacterial genomes (HGT), but only ones that could be vertical are actinobacterial
Chitin No No Not in Actinobacteria
Serine/threonine signaling system No Yes In Firmicutes too
Tyrosine Kinase No Yes In many bacteria
H1 linker histone No Yes In many bacteria
Calmodulin No Yes In many bacteria
Phosphatidylinositol No Yes Apparently unique to Actinobacteria, but related enzymes in other groups
Serine proteases No Yes In many bacteria
Primary structure of α-amylase No No In a few other bacterial genomes
Fatty Acid synthetase complex No Maybe Exclusive to actinobacteria
Exospore formation No Yes Exclusive to actinobacteria
HEH domain in Ku protein No No Exclusive to actinobacteria
  1. Many of these traits argue for an actinobacterial role in eukaryogenesis but not the origin of archaea. This list of informative characters is taken from [16].