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Table 1 Lamarckian and quasi-Lamarckian phenomena

From: Is evolution Darwinian or/and Lamarckian?

Phenomenon Biological role/function Phyletic spread Lamarckian criteria
    Genomic changes caused by environmental factor Changes are specific to relevant genomic loci Changes provide adaptation to the causative factor
Bona fide Lamarckian
CRISPR-Cas Defense against viruses and other mobile elements Archaea and bacteria (present in ~1/3 sequenced genomes) Yes Yes Yes
piRNA Defense against transposable elements in germline Animals (apparently, all) Yes Yes Yes
HGT (specific cases) Adaptation to new environment, stress response, resistance Archaea, bacteria, unicellular eukaryotes Yes Yes Yes
Quasi-Lamarckian
HGT (general phenomenon) Diverse innovations Archaea, bacteria, unicellular eukaryotes Yes No Yes/no
Stress-induced mutagenesis Stress response/resistance/
adaptation to new conditions
Ubiquitous Yes No or partially Yes (but general evolvability/
Adaptability enhanced as well)