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  1. Gene duplications are a source of new genes and protein functions. The innovative role of duplication events makes families of paralogous genes an interesting target for studies in evolutionary biology. Here w...

    Authors: Alexander Y Panchin, Mikhail S Gelfand, Vasily E Ramensky and Irena I Artamonova
    Citation: Biology Direct 2010 5:54
  2. Gene expression divergence is a phenotypic trait reflecting evolution of gene regulation and characterizing dissimilarity between species and between cells and tissues within the same species. Several distance...

    Authors: Galina Glazko and Arcady Mushegian
    Citation: Biology Direct 2010 5:51
  3. TATA Binding Protein (TBP) is required for transcription initiation by all three eukaryotic RNA polymerases. It participates in transcriptional initiation at the majority of eukaryotic gene promoters, either b...

    Authors: Sucheta A Gokhale, Reema Roshan, Vivek Khetan, Beena Pillai and Chetan J Gadgil
    Citation: Biology Direct 2010 5:50
  4. Wnt5 genes belong to the large Wnt family, encoding proteins implicated into several tumorigenic and developmental processes. Phylogenetic analyses showed that Wnt5 gene has been duplicated at the divergence time...

    Authors: Maria Kapasa, Stilianos Arhondakis and Sophia Kossida
    Citation: Biology Direct 2010 5:49
  5. Improving knowledge of biodiversity will benefit conservation biology, enhance bioremediation studies, and could lead to new medical treatments. However there is no standard approach to estimate and to compare...

    Authors: Lucie Bittner, Sébastien Halary, Claude Payri, Corinne Cruaud, Bruno de Reviers, Philippe Lopez and Eric Bapteste
    Citation: Biology Direct 2010 5:47
  6. Advances in digital data acquisition, analysis, and storage have revolutionized the work in many biological disciplines such as genomics, molecular phylogenetics, and structural biology, but have not yet found...

    Authors: Alexander Ziegler, Malte Ogurreck, Thomas Steinke, Felix Beckmann, Steffen Prohaska and Andreas Ziegler
    Citation: Biology Direct 2010 5:45
  7. The wealth of prokaryotic genomic data available has revealed that the histories of many genes are inconsistent, leading some to question the value of the tree of life hypothesis. It has been argued that a tre...

    Authors: Ruben E Valas and Philip E Bourne
    Citation: Biology Direct 2010 5:44
  8. Almost all known nucleic acid polymerases catalyze 5'-3' polymerization by mediating the attack on an incoming nucleotide 5' triphosphate by the 3'OH from the growing polynucleotide chain in a template depende...

    Authors: Vivek Anantharaman, Lakshminarayan M Iyer and L Aravind
    Citation: Biology Direct 2010 5:43
  9. The hypothesis that both mitochondrial (mt) complementary DNA strands of tRNA genes code for tRNAs (sense-antisense coding) is explored. This could explain why mt tRNA mutations are 6.5 times more frequently p...

    Authors: Hervé Seligmann
    Citation: Biology Direct 2010 5:39
  10. This paper is an attempt to trace the evolution of the ribosome through the evolution of the universal P-loop GTPases that are involved with the ribosome in translation and with the attachment of the ribosome ...

    Authors: Hyman Hartman and Temple F Smith
    Citation: Biology Direct 2010 5:36
  11. Coding sequence (CDS) length, gene size, and intron length vary within a genome and among genomes. Previous studies in diverse organisms, including human, D. Melanogaster, C. elegans, S. cerevisiae, and Arabidops...

    Authors: You S Rao, Zhang F Wang, Xue W Chai, Guo Z Wu, Ming Zhou, Qing H Nie and Xi Q Zhang
    Citation: Biology Direct 2010 5:35
  12. Evolutionarily unrelated proteins that catalyze the same biochemical reactions are often referred to as analogous - as opposed to homologous - enzymes. The existence of numerous alternative, non-homologous enz...

    Authors: Marina V Omelchenko, Michael Y Galperin, Yuri I Wolf and Eugene V Koonin
    Citation: Biology Direct 2010 5:31
  13. Microbial consortia are a major form of life; however their stability conditions are poorly understood and are often explained in terms of species-specific defence mechanisms (secretion of extracellular matrix...

    Authors: Vittorio Venturi, Ádám Kerényi, Beáta Reiz, Dóra Bihary and Sándor Pongor
    Citation: Biology Direct 2010 5:30
  14. The transition from premalignant to invasive tumour growth is a prolonged multistep process governed by phenotypic adaptation to changing microenvironmental selection pressures. Cancer prevention strategies ar...

    Authors: Kieran Smallbone, Philip K Maini and Robert A Gatenby
    Citation: Biology Direct 2010 5:22
  15. The balance between self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells is expected to be tightly controlled in order to maintain tissue homeostasis throughout life, also in the face of environmental hazards. Theor...

    Authors: Zvia Agur, Yuri Kogan, Liora Levi, Hannah Harrison, Rebecca Lamb, Oleg U Kirnasovsky and Robert B Clarke
    Citation: Biology Direct 2010 5:20
  16. Understanding the origin of protein synthesis has been notoriously difficult. We have taken as a starting premise Wolf and Koonin's view that "evolution of the translation system is envisaged to occur in a com...

    Authors: Harold S Bernhardt and Warren P Tate
    Citation: Biology Direct 2010 5:16
  17. The mechanism by which the arthropod Oskar and vertebrate TDRD5/TDRD7 proteins nucleate or organize structurally related ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes, the polar granule and nuage, is poorly understood. Us...

    Authors: Vivek Anantharaman, Dapeng Zhang and L Aravind
    Citation: Biology Direct 2010 5:13
  18. Attempts to engage the scientific community to annotate biological data (such as protein/gene function) stored in databases have not been overly successful. There are several hypotheses on why this has not bee...

    Authors: Raja Mazumder, Darren A Natale, Jessica Anne Ecalnir Julio, Lai-Su Yeh and Cathy H Wu
    Citation: Biology Direct 2010 5:12
  19. The success of invertebrates throughout evolution is an excellent illustration of the efficiency of their defence strategies. Caenorhabditis elegans has proven to be an appropriate model for transcriptome studies...

    Authors: Annelies Bogaerts, Isabel Beets, Liesbet Temmerman, Liliane Schoofs and Peter Verleyen
    Citation: Biology Direct 2010 5:11
  20. The Z-curve is a three dimensional representation of DNA sequences proposed over a decade ago and has been extensively applied to sequence segmentation, horizontal gene transfer detection, and sequence analysi...

    Authors: Eran Elhaik, Dan Graur and Krešimir Josić
    Citation: Biology Direct 2010 5:10
  21. The transcription factor FOXP3 is essential for the development and function of CD4+CD25hiFOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, but also expressed in activated human helper T cells without acquisition of a regulatory...

    Authors: Michael Probst-Kepper and Jan Buer
    Citation: Biology Direct 2010 5:8

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