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Table 2 Summary of hypotheses and how they account for the unavoidable questions of mitochondrial origins

From: Breath-giving cooperation: critical review of origin of mitochondria hypotheses

  Hydrogen hypothesis [12, 45] Photosynthetic symbiont theory [36, 108] Syntrophy hypothesis [48] Phagocytosing archaeon theory [16] Pre-endosymbiont hypothesis [9, 41] Sulfur-cycling hypothesis [57] Origin-by-infection hypothesis [57] Oxygen detoxification hypothesis [68, 69, 103]
Eukaryotic singularity       
Lack of intermediates        
Chimaeric nature (membrane conversion) () () () (?) (?) (?) (?) (?)
Lack of membrane bioenergetics in host      
Non-photosynthetic mitochondria      
Variety of mitochondria     
Metabolism of host (?)
Metabolism of symbiont ?
Initial relationship (?) ?
Early selective advantage      (untenable)
Mechanism of inclusion   
Vertical transmission         
  1. A checkmark indicates that the hypothesis reasonably accounts for the observed facts and complies with empirical data (even if debatable). A blank cell indicates that it is unclear how the theory deals (if at all) with the given question