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Table 1 Possible combinations of components and scenarios discussed in this paper

From: Breath-giving cooperation: critical review of origin of mitochondria hypotheses

  Host (cytoplasm and possible nucleus)
  Primitive eukaryote Archaeon Bacterium
Ecological relationship (inclusion mechanism) syntrophy (+ / +) (engulfment) • ox-tox model [68, 69] • hydrogen hypothesis [45]
• sulfur-cycling hypothesis [57]
• syntrophy hypothesis (+archaeon as nucleus) [48]
predation (+ / -) (phagocytosis) • pre-endosymbiont hypothesis [9, 41] • phagocytosing archaeon theory [16] • photosynthetic symbiont theory [36]
parasitism (- / +) (invasion) • origin-by-infection hypothesis [57]
  1. The + and - signs in the second column indicate ecologically beneficial (+) or costly (−) interactions for the host/guest. For a more detailed view and more hypotheses included, see Additional file 1: Table S1