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Fig. 1 | Biology Direct

Fig. 1

From: Importins promote high-frequency NF-κB oscillations increasing information channel capacity

Fig. 1

Spatiotemporal profiles of NF-κB and IκBα in response to TNFα and LPS and the emerging model. Immunostaining confocal images showing localization and level of RelA (component of NF-κB dimer) and IκBα after (a) TNFα stimulation, (b) LPS stimulation, or (c) LPS + CHX costimulation. In (c), CHX was added 1 h before LPS stimulation. Additional file 4, Additional file 5 and Additional file 6 provide full confocal images corresponding to the images shown in (ac). Additional file 7 provides confocal images of cells stimulated with 10 ng/ml TNFα for short time points (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min). d Model scheme. Arrow-headed lines denote transitions, mRNA or protein synthesis, complex formation, or fast degradation; circle-headed lines denote positive influence; hammer-headed line denotes negative influence. Importins direct NF-κB to the nucleus, whereas exportins bind IκBα and IκBα–NF-κB dimers and shepherd them to the cytoplasm. All other nucleocytoplasmic translocations are assumed to proceed in a karyopherin-independent manner

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