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Fig. 2 | Biology Direct

Fig. 2

From: Should tissue structure suppress or amplify selection to minimize cancer risk?

Fig. 2

Different graph structures that can model colonic crypts. a, b Two examples of suppressors of evolution for death-Birth updating. For Birth-death updating, these are equivalent to the well-mixed population in terms of the fixation probability. These two graphs consist of two layers of rings, their qualitative features do not change if we increase these structures to two rings of five, six, up to ten nodes. c This bowl-like graph with 13 nodes comprised of a base of 3 interconnected nodes, which are all connected to all nodes of the middle layer of five nodes. From the middle layer, every node has a corresponding node in the upper ring, to which it is connected. The links are undirected and unweighted. This graph is a suppressor of selection for both Birth-death and death-Birth updating. Thus, it reduces the fixation probabilities for advantageous mutations. d This graph has 12 nodes that are positioned in three layers. Here, the edges are directed and weighted. The outgoing edges between layers have a relative weight of 0.9, whereas the corresponding incoming weights are 0.1. This is to account for the outflowing cell-replacement of the colonic crypt. All other edge weights are 1. This graph is a suppressor of selection for Birth-death and death-Birth updating. The outflowing dynamics makes the suppression even stronger than in the same graph with unweighted edges

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