Skip to main content


Fig. 1 | Biology Direct

Fig. 1

From: The Columbian Exchange as a source of adaptive introgression in human populations

Fig. 1

Adaptive introgression via the Columbian Exchange. a Examples of plants, animals and microbes transferred between the Old and New Worlds during the Columbian Exchange. Human populations from Europe, Africa and the Americas were also brought together during this era. b The number of generations needed to fix an adaptive allele is modeled for a selection coefficient (s) of 0.01 and a dominance coefficient (h) of 1.0. The level of per-generation adaptive change in allele frequencies varies over four orders of magnitude and reaches its maximum at intermediate allele frequencies. c Ancestry-enrichment analysis for the adaptive introgression events. An example is shown for a single chromosome from a hypothetical admixed population with African (avg = 30 %) and European (avg = 70 %) ancestry. Locus-specific ancestry is assigned for all chromosomes in the admixed population, and regions with anomalously high (or low) ancestral origins are identified for further investigation

Back to article page