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Table 1 Key-nested frames associated to AR: a complex parameter space

From: A membrane computing simulator of trans-hierarchical antibiotic resistance evolution dynamics in nested ecological compartments (ARES)

a) Density of colonized and colonizable hosts with antibiotic resistant bacteria

b) Population sizes of bacteria per host during colonization and infection

c) Susceptibility to colonization of hosts, including age, gender, ethnicity, nutrition,

illness-facilitated colonization

d) Frequency of between-hosts interactions i.e. ,human-to-human or animal-human interactions

e) Host natural and acquired immune response to colonizing organisms

f) Ecological parameters of colonizable areas, including interaction with local microbiota and frequency and type of antibiotic-resistant commensals

g) Migration and dispersal

h) Antibiotic and biocide exposure and overall density of antibiotic use, type of antibiotics and mode of action, dosage and duration of therapy, adherence to therapy, selective antibiotic concentrations, antibiotic combinations

i) Mode of transmission of resistant organisms from the environment to hosts

j) Transmission rates between hosts (antibiotic treated and not-treated, infected, and not-infected)

k) Time of contact between hosts

l) Hygiene, infection control, sanitation

m) Food, and drinking water contamination by resistant bacteria and host exposure

n) Environmental contamination by resistant organisms, including soil, sewage and water