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Table 2 Distribution of lignin biosynthesis genes in non-archaeplastid genomes

From: Ancient origin of the biosynthesis of lignin precursors

Organism Phylum PAL C4H 4CL CCR CAD HCT C3H COMT CCoAMT F5H CSE sm F5H PER LAC
STRAMENOPILES                
Diatoms                
Fragilariopsis cylindrus Bacillariophyta    + +E +          +
Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bacillariophyta    + + +          +E
T. pseudonana Bacillariophyta    +G            
Pelagophyte                
A. anophagefferens Heterokontophyta    +G   +G          
Brown algae                
Ectocarpus siliculosus Phaeophyceae    +G            
Eustigmatophytes                
N. gaditana Eustigmatophyceae    +G +G           
Chrysophytes                
Ochromonas danica Chrysoophyceae          +E      
Oomycetes                
Albugo laibachii Heterokontophyta    +G +G +G          +
Phytophthora infestans Heterokontophyta    + + +          +
Phytophthora sojae Heterokontophyta    +   +          +
ALVEOLATES                
Apicomplexa                
Cryptosporidium muris Apicomplexa     +G +          
Cryptosporidium parvum Apicomplexa     +G +          
Theileria parva Apicomplexa               
Toxoplasma gondii Apicomplexa               
Dinoflagellates                
Symbiodinium minutum Dinoflagellata    +G +G +G          
Ciliates                
Paramecium tetraurelia Ciliophora    +G   +          
T. thermophila Ciliophora    +G +G           
HAPTOPHYTES                
E. huxleyi CCMP1516 Haptophyta    + + +     +      +G
CRYPTOPHYTES                
Guillardia theta Cryptophyta    +G +G +G     +G      
Hemiselmis andersenii Cryptophyta               
  1. Footnote = + Present in both genome sequence and EST library, +E Present in EST library only, +G Present in genome sequence only. Presence (+) is determined by a reciprocal BLASTP hit with an E-value < 1x10-30 or less using the characterized land plant A. thaliana or S. moellendorffii gene as a query, searching the NCBI, JGI, OIST Marine Genomics Unit (http://marinegenomics.oist.jp/genomes/gallery/) and Paramecium (http://paramecium.cgm.cnrs-gif.fr/) databases. The abbreviations used for the enzyme can be described as follows: phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL); cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H); 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL); cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR); cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD); p-hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA (HCT); p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H); caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT); caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAMT); ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H); caffeoyl shikimate esterase (CSE) and Selaginella moelledorfii F5H (smF5H); peroxidase (PER); and laccase (LAC).