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Table 1 Distribution of lignin biosynthesis genes in archaeplastid genomes

From: Ancient origin of the biosynthesis of lignin precursors

Organism Phylum PAL C4H 4CL CCR CAD HCT C3H COMT CCoAMT F5H CSE sm F5H PER LAC
ARCHAEPLASTIDS                
Land plants                
Arabidopsis thaliana Streptophyta + + + + + + + + + + +   + +
Oryza sativa Streptophyta + + + + + + + + + + +   + +
Physcomitrella patens Streptophyta + + + + + + + + +   +   + +
Picea abies Streptophyta + + + + + + + + + + +   + +
Selaginella moellendorffii Streptophyta + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
Green algae                
Bathycoccus prasinos Chlorophyta      +G     +G      
Botryococcus braunii Chlorophyta      +E     +E      
C. reinhardtii Chlorophyta     + +     +G      +G
Chlorella sp. NC64A Chlorophyta     +G +G     +G      +G
Chlorella variablilis Chlorophyta    +G +G +G     +G      +G
Coccomyxa subellipsoidea Chlorophyta    +G + +     +    +G   +G
Dunaliella salina Chlorophyta      +E          
Haematococcus pluvialis Chlorophyta      +E          
M. pusilla CCMP1545 Chlorophyta      +G     +G      
Micromonas sp. RCC299 Chlorophyta      +G     +G      
O. lucimarinus Chlorophyta      +          
Ostreococcus sp.RCC809 Chlorophyta      +G          
Ostreococcus tauri Chlorophyta      +G     +G      
Polytomella sp. Chlorophyta      +G          
Polytomella parva Chlorophyta      +E          
Prototheca wickerhamii Chlorophyta      +E          
Volvox carteri Chlorophyta     +G +     +G      
Red algae                
C. tuberculosum Rhodophyta    +G +G +G     +G      +G
Chondrus crispus Rhodophyta    +G +G +G          +G
Cyanidioschyzon merolae Rhodophyta     +G +G     +G      
Galdiera sulphararia Rhodophyta    +G   +G          
Porphyridium cruentum Rhodophyta    +E +E +E     +E      
Glaucophytes                
Cyanophora paradoxa Glaucophyta    +G +G +G          
  1. Footnote = + Present in both genome sequence and EST library, +E Present in EST library only, +G Present in genome sequence only. Presence (+) is determined by a reciprocal BLASTP hit with an E-value < 1x10-30 or less using the characterized land plant A. thaliana or S. moellendorffii gene as a query, searching the NCBI, JGI, and Congenie databases. The abbreviations used for the enzyme can be described as follows: phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL); cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H); 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL); cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR); cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD); p-hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA (HCT); p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H); caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT); caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAMT); ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H); caffeoyl shikimate esterase (CSE) and Selaginella moelledorfii F5H (smF5H); peroxidase (PER); and laccase (LAC).