Substitution rates in paralogs and their sister singletons. A: Scatterplot of Ka (log scale) in paralogous vs. their nearest sister outgroup orthologous singleton clades. Colours of circles and lines indicate three classes of clade age measured in Ks units estimated for the speciation event. Inset: Frequency of triplets in which paralogs evolve faster (Ka, para > Ka, single) than singletons (above 0 line) and vice versa (below 0 line). Filled portions of bars represent the frequency of triplets in which this difference is significant after Bonferroni adjustment (PB < 0.05). B-D: Distribution of substitution rates (relKa), normalized by the upper bound estimate of duplication age (B), absolute difference in polarity (|dPolarity|, C) and exchangeability (D) in paralogous (red) and singleton (blue) clades.