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Table 4 Evolved proto-codes, sub-optimal solution

From: Amino acid fermentation at the origin of the genetic code

Amino Acid # anticodons (SE) G+U content (SE) p* p+
Alanine 4.67 (1.15) 1.93 (0.84) 0.18 0.12
Glycine 15.0 (3.61) 1.36 (0.69) 0.55 0.65
Aspartic Acid 3.67 (6.35) 1.00 (0.60) 0.23 0.24
Valine 2.33 (0.58) 2.00 (0.33) 0.13 0.14
Leucine 14.70 (1.15) 1.36 (0.56) 0.17 0.21
Glutamic acid 2.33 (0.577) 1.71 (1.57) 0.45 0.34
Serine 3.00 (1.00) 2.11 (0.61) 0.18 0.10
Isoleucine 2.33 (0.577) 2.29 (0.24) 0.02 0.03
Proline 11.30 (9.87) 1.35 (0.72) 0.39 0.77
Threonine 4.67 (4.62) 1.57 (1.03) 1.00 0.55
  1. Outcomes of selection on the fermentation yield of proto-codes randomly initiated with equal probabilities of glycine and alanine. The results are from the 3 sub-optimal codes (see Figure 10). * Significance p value for a sign test; + significance p value for a χ2 test. Otherwise as in Tables 2 and 3.