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Table 3 Evolved proto-codes, optimal solutions

From: Amino acid fermentation at the origin of the genetic code

Amino Acid # anticodons (SE) G+U content (SE) p* p +
Alanine 2.21(0.84) 1.98 (0.89) 10-8 10-21
Glycine 13.06 (2.96) 1.36 (0.66) 10-7 10-9
Aspartic Acid 14.24 (3.01) 1.25 (0.68) 10-17 10-23
Valine 2.19 (0.94) 2.23 (0.54) 10-25 10-37
Leucine 10.77 (4.60) 1.41 (0.61) 0.0024 10-7
Glutamic acid 2.09 (0.89) 2.18 (0.46) 10-29 10-28
Serine 2.13 (0.86) 2.15 (0.52) 10-21 10-27
Isoleucine 2.13 (1.12) 2.18 (0.54) 10-22 10-30
Proline 13.30 (3.04) 1.37 (0.69) 0.00003 10-6
Threonine 1.88 (1.16) 2.12 (0.56) 10-18 10-21
  1. Outcomes of selection on the fermentation yield of proto-codes randomly initiated with equal probabilities of glycine and alanine. Every 7000 generations a new amino acid was added, randomly selected from the remaining Miller amino acids. Overall, the simulations ran for 100,000 generations (MC steps). The results are from 97 optimal codes (see Figure 10). * Significance p value for a sign test; + Significance p value for a χ2 test. Otherwise as in Table 2.