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Table 1 Mendelian genetics from the perspective of evolutionary biology.

From: The existence of species rests on a metastable equilibrium between inbreeding and outbreeding. An essay on the close relationship between speciation, inbreeding and recessive mutations

Type of mutation Usual phenotype Estimated Frequency
(in mammalian genomes)
Silent None 97 - 99.9%
Gene inactivation Recessive 3 - 0.1%
New gene function Dominant 10-4 - 10-5
Gene dosage effect Co-recessive 3 - 0.1%
Change of function Co-dominant 10-4 - 10-5