Symbiogenesis, natural selection, and the dynamic Earth as key processes that caused biological evolution. The Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA) evolved into the earliest self-replicating proto-cells (ancient microbes) ca. 4000 to 3500 million years ago. Over the subsequent eons, these archaic microbes evolved into numerous bacterial ecotypes that today inhabit every micro-niche where organic molecules (or light) are available. Moreover, these micro-organisms gave rise to larger, eukaryotic cells via symbiogenesis (primary endosymbiosis). These nucleated cells further evolved into multicellular organisms, such as algae, fungi, animals and plants.