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Table 1 Selected common functional categories of fast-evolving genes and/or slow-evolving genes among mammalian genomes and lineages.

From: Nonsynonymous substitution rate (Ka) is a relatively consistent parameter for defining fast-evolving and slow-evolving protein-coding genes

Fast-evolving genes
Classification 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Immunity and defense * * * * * * * * * * * *
Biological process unclassified * * * * * * * * * * * *
Immunoglobulin receptor family member * * * * * * * * * * * *
Defense/immunity protein * * * * * * * * * * * *
Molecular function unclassified * * * * * * * * * * * *
Receptor * *   * * * * *   *   *
Cytokine and chemokine mediated signaling pathway     * * * * * * * * *
Cytokine receptor     * * * * * * * * *
Ligand-mediated signaling     * * * * * * * *  
Other defense and immunity protein     * * * * * * * *  
Natural killer cell mediated immunity *    * * *   * * *   
T-cell mediated immunity     * * * * * * *   *
B-cell- and antibody-mediated immunity     * * * * * * *   
Interleukin     * * * * * * *   
Cytokine      * * * * * * *  
Slow-evolving genes
Classification 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Nucleoside, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolism * * * * * * * * * * * *
mRNA transcription * * * * * * * * * * * *
Pre-mRNA processing * * * * * * * * * * * *
mRNA splicing * * * * * * * * * * * *
Protein metabolism and modification * * * * * * * * * * * *
Intracellular protein traffic * * * * * * * * * * * *
Nucleic acid binding * * * * * * * * * * * *
mRNA processing factor * * * * * * * * * * * *
mRNA splicing factor * * * * * * * * * * * *
G-protein * * * * * * * * * * * *
Small GTPase * * * * * * * * * * * *
FGF signaling pathway * * * * * * * * * * * *
Ubiquitin proteasome pathway * * * * * * * * * * * *
Protein biosynthesis * * * *   * * * * * *  
Ribosomal protein * * * *   * * * * * *  
General vesicle transport * *   * * * * * * * * *
mRNA transcription regulation   * * * * * * * * * * *
Transcription factor   * * * * * * * * * * *
Huntington disease   * * * * * * * * * * *
Select regulatory molecule   *   * * * * * * * * *
Translation factor   *   * * * * * * * *  
T cell activation    * * * * * * * * * *
Cell cycle   *   * * * * * * *   *
Mitosis   *   * * * * * * *   
Translation initiation factor   *   * * * * * * *   
Wnt signaling pathway    * * * * * * * *   *
PDGF signaling pathway     * * * * * * * * *
Other transcription factor *   * *   * * * *    
Developmental processes     * * * * * * *   
Endocytosis     * * * * * * *   *
Protein phosphorylation     * * * * * *   * *
Hedgehog signaling pathway    * * *   * * * *   
Ionotropic glutamate receptor pathway    *    * * * * * * *
Metabotropic glutamate receptor group III pathway    *    * * * * * * *
Parkinson disease    *    * * * * * * *
B cell activation    *    * * * * * *  
Angiogenesis     * * * * * * *   *
Ras Pathway     * * * * * * *   *
  1. Note: The asterisks depict function classification of genes in species and lineages, which are significantly enriched based on Fisher's Exact Test after multiple corrections. The species are coded in numbers as what listed in Figure 1.