Skip to main content


Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Table 2 Codons in phase 0 that may lend a dinucleotide to form a start codon in phase 1 and phase 2. The usage of each start codon in (a) all genes; (b) the downstream gene of long phase-1 overlaps; and (c) the downstream gene of long phase-2 overlaps, is noted.

From: Same-strand overlapping genes in bacteria: compositional determinants of phase bias

Start Codon (usage in: all genes, phase1, phase 2) Phase Codon Group Amino Acids Mean amino acid frequency
ATG (a77%, b73%, c64%) 1 NAT Tyr, His, Asn, Asp 3.67%
  2 TGN Cys, Trp 1.06%
GTG (a14%, b15%, c23%) 1 NGT Cys, Arg, Ser, Gly 4.87%
  2 TGN Cys, Trp 1.06%
TTG (a9%, b12%, c14%) 1 NTT Phe, Leu, Ile, Val 7.12%
  2 TGN Cys, Trp 1.06%