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Table 1 Summary of results from ribosomal phylogenetic analyses. Only studies that included sequences from at least one species of Porifera, Ctenophora, Placozoa, Cnidaria, and Bilateria were considered. Not all the studies included data from both major clades of poriferans, so a single "Po" entry in the result column does not necessarily indicate a monophyletic Porifera. Modeled after Table 1 of [99].

From: Hox, Wnt, and the evolution of the primary body axis: insights from the early-divergent phyla

Authors Year Meth Result Hypoth
Wainright et al. [79] 1993 ML (Po,(Ct,((Tr, Cn), Bi)))  
Katayama et al. [80] 1995 DI ((((Po, Ct), Tr), Cn), Bi)  
Katayama et al. [80]   MP ((((Po, Ct), Tr), Cn), Bi)  
Katayama et al. [80]   ML ((Po,(Ct, Tr)),(Cn, Bi)) CnBi
Hanelt et al. [81] 1996 DI ((((Po, Ct), Tr), Cn), Bi)  
Van de Peer & Wachter [82] 1997 DI (((Po,(Po, Ct)),(Tr, Cn)), Bi)  
Abouheif et al. [83] 1998 MP (Po,(Ct,(Tr,(Cn, Bi)))) CnBi
Colins [84] 1998 MP (Po,(Po, Ct,(Tr,(Cn, Bi))) CnBi
Colins [84]   ML (Po,((Po, Ct),(Tr,(Cn, Bi)))) CnBi
Halanych [85] 1998 MP (Po,(Tr,((Cn,(Ct, Cn)), Bi)));  
Halanych [85]   MP (Po,(Tr,(Ct, Cn, Bi))))  
Lipscomb et al. [86] 1998 MP (Po, Po, Ct,((Tr, Cn), Bi));  
Littlewood et al. [87] 1998 DI (Tr,((Po,(Po, Ct)),(Cn, Bi)))* CnBi
Winnepenninckx et al. [88] 1998 DI ((Po,(Po, Ct)),(Cn,(Tr, Bi))) TrBi
Zrzavý et al. [89] 1998 MP ((Po,(Po, Ct)),(Tr,(Cn,(Cn, Bi)))) CnBi
Kim et al. [90] 1999 DI (Po,(Po,(Ct,(Tr,(Cn, Bi))))) CnBi
Kim et al. [90]   ML (Po,(Po,(Ct,(Tr,(Cn, Bi))))) CnBi
Giribet et al. [91] 1999 MP (Po,(Ct,(Cn,(Tr, Bi)))) TrBi
Siddall & Whiting [92] 1999 MP ((Po, Ct),(Cn,(Tr, Bi))) TrBi
Peterson & Eernisse [93] 2001 MP (Po,(Po, Ct,(Tr,(Cn, Bi)))) CnBi
Podar et al. [94] 2001 ML (Po,(Ct,(Tr,(Cn, Bi)))) CnBi
Collins et al. [95] 2002 MP (Po,(Po,(Ct,(Cn,(Tr, Bi))))) TrBi
Jondelius et al. [96] 2002 ML (Po,(Po,(Ct,(Cn,(Tr, Bi))))) TrBi
Martinelli & Spring [97] 2003 ML (Po,(((Ct, Tr), Cn), Bi))  
Zrzavý & Hypša [98] 2003 MP (Po,(Ct,((Tr, Cn), Bi)))  
Zrzavý & Hypša [98]   MP (Po,(Ct,(Tr,(Cn, Bi)))) CnBi
Zrzavý & Hypša [98]   MP (Po,((Ct, Tr),(Cn, Bi))) CnBi
Wallberg et al. [99] 2004 MP (Po, Po,(Ct,(Cn,(Tr, Bi)))) TrBi
  1. Meth = Method, Hypoth = Hypothesis, ML = Maximum Likelihood, MP = Maximum Parsimony, DI = Distance, Po = Porifera, Ct = Ctenophora, Tr = Placozoa, Cn = Cnidaria, Bi = Bilateria, CnBi = sister relationship between Cnidaria and Bilateria, TrBi = sister relationship between Placozoa and Bilateria.